4,245 research outputs found

    Report of the Snowmass Subgroup on Extra Dimensions

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    In this report we summarize the work performed at Snowmass 2001 on the physics of extra dimensions. We divide these analyses into the following classes: searches for extra dimensional phenomena, identification of specific new physics scenarios, studies of black hole production and non-commutative QED.Comment: Contributed to APS / DPF / DPB Summer Study on the Future of Particle Physics (Snowmass 2001), Snowmass, Colorado, 30 Jun - 21 Jul 200

    Revealing the large extra dimension effective interaction at an e^+e^- collider with polarized beams

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    Contactlike nonstandard effective interactions can be revealed through deviations of observables from the Standard Model predictions. If such deviations were observed, the relevant source should be identified among the possible models that could explain them. We estimate the expected discrimination reach on the ADD model of gravity in large compactified extra dimensions, against the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interaction. As basic observables we take the differential cross sections for fermion-pair production at a 0.5-1 TeV electron-positron linear collider with both beams longitudinally polarized. For the four-fermion contact interaction, we assume a general linear combination of the individual models with definite chiralities, and arbitrary coupling constants. Accordingly, the estimated identification reach on the ADD scenario can be considered as `model-independent'. We emphasize the substantial role of beams polarization in enhancing the identification sensitivity.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figure

    Competitive Exclusion and Limiting Similarity: A Unified Theory

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    Robustness of coexistence against changes of parameters is investigated in a model-independent manner through analyzing the feed-back loop of population regulation. We define coexistence as fixed point of the community dynamics with no population having zero size. It is demonstrated that the parameter range allowing coexistence shrinks and disappears when the Jacobian of the dynamics decreases to zero. A general notion of regulating factors/variables is introduced. For each population, its 'impact' and 'sensitivity' niches a re defined as the differential impact on, and the differential sensitivity towards, the regulating variables, respectively. Either similarity of the impact niches, or similarity of the sensitivity niches, result in a small Jacobian and in a reduced likelihood of coexistence. For the case of a resource continuum, this result reduces to the usual "limited niches overlap" picture for both kinds of niche. As an extension of these ideas to the coexistence of infinitely many species, we demonstrate that Roughgarden's example for coexistence of a 'continuum' of populations is structurally unstable

    Verhalten von kubisch-raumzentrierten technischen Supraleitern unter dynamischer mechanischer Belastung

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    Unique Identification of Graviton Exchange Effects in e^+ e^- Collisions

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    Many types of new physics can lead to contact interaction-like modifications in e^+ e^- processes below direct production threshold. We examine the possibility of uniquely identifying the effects of graviton exchange, which are anticipated in many extra dimensional theories, from amongst this large set of models by using the moments of the angular distribution of the final state particles. In the case of the e^+ e^- --> f bar{f} process we demonstrate that this technique allows for the unique identification of the graviton exchange signature at the 5 sigma level for mass scales as high as 6 sqrt(s). The extension of this method to the e^+ e^- --> W^+ W^- process is also discussed.Comment: 21 pages, 3 figs, LaTe

    Transverse Polarization Signatures of Extra Dimensions at Linear Colliders

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    If significant longitudinal polarization of both the electrons and positrons becomes feasible at a future linear collider(LC), it may be possible to use spin rotators to produce transversely polarized beams. Using the transverse polarization of both beams, new azimuthal spin asymmetries can be formed which will be sensitive probes for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Here we demonstrate that these asymmetries are particularly sensitive to the exchange of Kaluza-Klein towers of gravitons, or other spin-2 fields, that are predicted to exist in higher dimensional theories which address the hierarchy problem. These new asymmetries are shown to be able to extend the search reach for such new physics by more than a factor of two, provide an additional tool for isolating the signatures for spin-2 exchange up to mass scales in excess of 10s10\sqrt s, and can be used to help differentiate among the proposed solutions to the hierarchy problem below the production threshold for new particles.Comment: 22 pages, 6 figs. LaTe

    Tests of model of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

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    Gluon jets with a mean energy of 22 GeV and purity of 95% are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. After imposing the requirement of a rapidity gap, the gluon jet purity is 86%. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We use our data to test three QCD models which include a simulation of color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo, one in the Herwig Monte Carlo, and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find the Rathsman and Ariadne color reconnection models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and that the description of inclusive Z0 data is significantly degraded in this case. We conclude that color reconnection as implemented by these two models is disfavored. The signal from the Herwig color reconnection model is less clear and we do not obtain a definite conclusion concerning this model. In a separate study, we follow recent theoretical suggestions and search for glueball-like objects in the leading part of the gluon jets. No clear evidence is observed for these objects.Comment: 42 pages, 18 figure

    Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in e+e- annihilations at sqrt(s) = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

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    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the predictions of three Monte Carlo event generators. While the Monte Carlo models are in good agreement with the data, the theoretical predictions fail to describe the full set of results, in particular the b and gluon jet measurements.Comment: 46 pages, 17 figures, Submitted to Eur. Phys J.

    Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the OPAL Detector at LEP

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    This paper summarises the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV performed by the OPAL Collaboration at LEP. The consistency of the data with the background hypothesis and various Higgs boson mass hypotheses is examined. No indication of a signal is found in the data and a lower bound of 112.7GeV/C^2 is obtained on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson at the 95% CL.Comment: 51 pages, 21 figure

    A study of charm production in beauty decays with the OPAL detector at LEP

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    Using an inclusive method, BR(b -> D\bar{D}X) has been measured in hadronic Z^0 decays with the OPAL detector at LEP. The impact parameter significance of tracks opposite tagged b-jets is used to differentiate b -> D\bar{D}X decays from other decays. Using this result, the average number of charm and anti-charm quarks produced per beauty quark decay, n_c, is determined.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure
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