173 research outputs found

    The MURAVES muon telescope: a low power consumption muon tracker for muon radiography applications

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    Muon Radiography or muography is based on the measurement of the absorption or scattering of cosmic muons, as they pass through the interior of large scale bodies, In particular, absorption muography has been applied to investigate the presence of hidden cavities inside the pyramids or underground, as well as the interior of volcanoes' edifices. The MURAVES project has the challenging aim of investigating the density distribution inside the summit of Mt. Vesuvius. The information, together with that coming from gravimetric measurements, is useful as input to models, to predict how an eruption may develop. The MURAVES apparatus is a robust and low power consumption muon telescope consisting of an array of three identical and independent muon trackers, which provide in a modular way a total sensitive area of three square meters. Each tracker consists of four doublets of planes of plastic scintillator bars with orthogonal orientation, optically coupled to Silicon photomultipliers for the readout of the signal. The muon telescope has been installed on the slope of the volcano and has collected a first set of data, which are being analyzed

    The MU-RAY project: Volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

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    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few 100m of a volcanic cone. With resolutions up to 10s of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods. Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project aims at the construction of muon telescopes and the development of new analysis tools for muon radiography. The telescopes are required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of two X–Y planes of 2x2 square meters area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fiber coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC chip.Published120-1231.4. TTC - Sorveglianza sismologica delle aree vulcaniche attiveJCR Journalrestricte

    The MURAVES Experiment: A Study of the Vesuvius Great Cone with Muon Radiography

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    The MURAVES experiment aims at the muographic imaging of the internal structure of the summit of Mt. Vesuvius, exploiting muons produced by cosmic rays. Though presently quiescent, the volcano carries a dramatic hazard in its highly populated surroundings. The challenging measurement of the rock density distribution in its summit by muography, in conjunction with data from other geophysical techniques, can help the modeling of possible eruptive dynamics. The MURAVES apparatus consists of an array of three independent and identical muon trackers, with a total sensitive area of 3 square meters. In each tracker, a sequence of 4 XY tracking planes made of plastic scintillators is complemented by a 60 cm thick lead wall inserted between the two downstream planes to improve rejection of background from low-energy muons. The apparatus is currently acquiring data. Preliminary results from the analysis of the first data sample are presented

    Performance of a Large-Area GEM Detector Prototype for the Upgrade of the CMS Muon Endcap System

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    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is being considered for the forward muon upgrade of the CMS experiment in Phase 2 of the CERN LHC. Its first implementation is planned for the GE1/1 system in the 1.5<∣η∣<2.21.5 < \mid\eta\mid < 2.2 region of the muon endcap mainly to control muon level-1 trigger rates after the second long LHC shutdown. A GE1/1 triple-GEM detector is read out by 3,072 radial strips with 455 μ\murad pitch arranged in eight η\eta-sectors. We assembled a full-size GE1/1 prototype of 1m length at Florida Tech and tested it in 20-120 GeV hadron beams at Fermilab using Ar/CO2_{2} 70:30 and the RD51 scalable readout system. Four small GEM detectors with 2-D readout and an average measured azimuthal resolution of 36 μ\murad provided precise reference tracks. Construction of this largest GEM detector built to-date is described. Strip cluster parameters, detection efficiency, and spatial resolution are studied with position and high voltage scans. The plateau detection efficiency is [97.1 ±\pm 0.2 (stat)]\%. The azimuthal resolution is found to be [123.5 ±\pm 1.6 (stat)] μ\murad when operating in the center of the efficiency plateau and using full pulse height information. The resolution can be slightly improved by ∼\sim 10 μ\murad when correcting for the bias due to discrete readout strips. The CMS upgrade design calls for readout electronics with binary hit output. When strip clusters are formed correspondingly without charge-weighting and with fixed hit thresholds, a position resolution of [136.8 ±\pm 2.5 stat] μ\murad is measured, consistent with the expected resolution of strip-pitch/12\sqrt{12} = 131.3 μ\murad. Other η\eta-sectors of the detector show similar response and performance.Comment: 8 pages, 32 figures, submitted to Proc. 2014 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symposium, Seattle, WA, reference adde

    Charged particle detection performance of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for the upgrade of CMS endcap muon system at the CERN LHC

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the CERN LHC. LHC will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity after second long shutdown. The forward region |η| ≥ 1:5 of CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of kHz/cm2 and hence it will affect the momentum resolution, efficiency and longevity of the muon detectors. Here, η is pseudorapidity defined as η = -ln(tan(θ/2)), where θ is the polar angle measured from z-axis. To overcome these issues the CMSGEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region (1:6 <; |η| <; 2.2) of the muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM detectors have been fabricated and tested at the CERN SPS, H2 and H4 test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures: Ar/CO2 (70/30) and Ar/CO2/CF4 (45/15/40). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, the performance of the detectors is summarized based on their tracking efficiency and time resolution

    A novel application of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in MPGD

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    We present a novel application of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in the construction and characterisation of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD), with particular attention to the realisation of the largest triple (Gas electron Multiplier) GEM chambers so far operated, the GE1/1 chambers of the CMS experiment at LHC. The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 m2 active area each, employing three GEM foils per chamber, to be installed in the forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. The large active area of each GE1/1 chamber consists of GEM foils that are mechanically stretched in order to secure their flatness and the consequent uniform performance of the GE1/1 chamber across its whole active surface. So far FBGs have been used in high energy physics mainly as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, low space consuming temperature sensors. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements in material studies. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide GEM foils of the GE1/1 chambers. A network of FBG sensors have been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterise the mechanical tension that should be applied to the foils. We discuss the results of the test done on a full-sized GE1/1 final prototype, the studies done to fully characterise the GEM material, how this information was used to define a standard assembly procedure and possible future developments.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, presented by Luigi Benussi at MPGD 2015 (Trieste, Italy). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1512.0848

    Development and performance of Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system of the CMS experiment

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    The CMS Collaboration is evaluating GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system. This contribution will focus on the R&D performed on chambers design features and will discuss the performance of the upgraded detector

    Overview of large area triple-GEM detectors for the CMS forward muon upgrade

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    In order to cope with the harsh environment expected from the high luminosity LHC, the CMS forward muon system requires an upgrade. The two main challenges expected in this environment are an increase in the trigger rate and increased background radiation leading to a potential degradation of the particle ID performance. Additionally, upgrades to other subdetectors of CMS allow for extended coverage for particle tracking, and adding muon system coverage to this region will further enhance the performance of CMS

    Operational experience with the GEM detector assembly lines for the CMS forward muon upgrade

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    The CMS Collaboration has been developing large-area triple-gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors to be installed in the muon Endcap regions of the CMS experiment in 2019 to maintain forward muon trigger and tracking performance at the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); 10 preproduction detectors were built at CERN to commission the first assembly line and the quality controls (QCs). These were installed in the CMS detector in early 2017 and participated in the 2017 LHC run. The collaboration has prepared several additional assembly and QC lines for distributed mass production of 160 GEM detectors at various sites worldwide. In 2017, these additional production sites have optimized construction techniques and QC procedures and validated them against common specifications by constructing additional preproduction detectors. Using the specific experience from one production site as an example, we discuss how the QCs make use of independent hardware and trained personnel to ensure fast and reliable production. Preliminary results on the construction status of CMS GEM detectors are presented with details of the assembly sites involvement

    Quality control and beam test of GEM detectors for future upgrades of the CMS muon high rate region at the LHC

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    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a proven position sensitive gas detector technology which nowadays is becoming more widely used in High Energy Physics. GEMs offer an excellent spatial resolution and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100% detection efficiency. In view of the high luminosity phase of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, these aforementioned features make GEMs suitable candidates for the future upgrades of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. In particular, the CMS GEM Collaboration proposes to cover the high-eta region of the muon system with large-area triple-GEM detectors, which have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions. In this contribution, after a general introduction and overview of the project, the construction of full-size trapezoidal triple-GEM prototypes will be described in more detail. The procedures for the quality control of the GEM foils, including gain uniformity measurements with an x-ray source will be presented. In the past few years, several CMS triple-GEM prototype detectors were operated with test beams at the CERN SPS. The results of these test beam campaigns will be summarised
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