120 research outputs found

    Toxicity and residual activity of spinetoram to neonate larvae of Grapholita molesta (Busck) and Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Semi-field and laboratory trials

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    Spinetoram is a fermentation insecticide, derived from the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It works by disrupting the GABA-gated chloride channels and by causing persistent activation of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spinetoram for control of neonate larvae of both oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth (CM) Cydia pomonella (L.) in semi-field and laboratory trials. OFM and CM neonate larvae responded similarly to spinetoram, which showed high efficacy on both species. In semi-field experiments, regression analysis of the percentage of damaged fruits as a function of days after treatment showed a better performance of the highest spinetoram dose (10 g a.i./hl) in comparison with the maximum recommended field dose of the reference product emamectin benzoate (2.85 g a.i./hl). Surface-treated diet assays revealed LC50 values of 6.59 and 8.44 ng a.i./cm2 for neonate larvae of OFM and CM larvae, respectively. High percentages of mortality were recorded on both species after 24-h exposure to treated diet. For these reasons spinetoram could be considered a valuable tool in IPM strategies for OFM and CM control

    A tracking detector to study O(1 GeV) ν μ CC interactions

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    A novel spectrometer to search for sterile neutrino with a short baseline νμ beam was proposed. The detector includes a tracking system composed of planes of triangular shape scintillator strips (3.3 cm × 1.7 cm ) coupled to Silicon PhotoMultipliers in analog mode readout. A spatial resolution of O(1 mm) is required for the determination of charge sign of muons produced in νμ CC interactions at few GeV energy scale. The tracking detector was tested with cosmic rays and particle beams at CERN PS. A spatial resolution ≤ 1.8 mm is achieved wih a detector based on cm size scintillator strips

    Functional Brain Connectivity and Inhibitory Control in Older Adults: A Preliminary Study

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    According to the inhibition deficit hypothesis, the ability to inhibit unwanted or irrelevant thoughts and behaviors decreases with age, which can have a significant impact on cognitive and emotional processing. However, studies examining inhibition and age have shown mixed results, with some studies finding a decrease in inhibitory control as individuals age, while others have found no relationship. The goal of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the underlying neural mechanisms that may explain why some older adults are better than others at inhibitory control by investigating the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the salience network, a network critical for detecting and focusing attention toward relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant information in the environment, and a behavioral measure of inhibitory control (Stroop Task interference score) in a sample of 65 healthy older individuals (ages 65+). Results revealed no direct effect of age on Stroop performance; however, there was an indirect effect of age on Stroop performance through rsFC. These results suggest that rsFC of the salience network may be an important factor to consider when it comes to understanding individual differences in inhibitory control behavior among older adults

    Use of in vivo phage display to engineer novel adenoviruses for targeted delivery to the cardiac vasculature

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    We performed in vivo phage display in the stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rat, a cardiovascular disease model, and the normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat to identify cardiac targeting peptides, and then assessed each in the context of viral gene delivery. We identified both common and strain-selective peptides, potentially indicating ubiquitous markers and those found selectively in dysfunctional microvasculature of the heart. We show the utility of the peptide, DDTRHWG, for targeted gene delivery in human cells and rats in vivo when cloned into the fiber protein of subgroup D adenovirus 19p. This study therefore identifies cardiac targeting peptides by in vivo phage display and the potential of a candidate peptide for vector targeting strategies

    Influence of pre-reproductive maternal enrichment on coping response to stress and expression of c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors in adolescent offspring

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    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation. For this purpose female Wistar rats were housed from weaning to breeding age in enriched or standard environments. Subsequently, all females were mated and housed in standard conditions until offspring weaning. On the first post partum day (ppd 1), mother-pup interactions in undisturbed conditions were recorded. Further, after weaning the male pups were reared for 2 weeks under social isolation or in standard conditions, and then submitted or not to a single-session Forced Swim Test (FST). Offspring's neuronal activation and plastic changes were identified by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and assessed by using stereological analysis. The biochemical correlates were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala and cingulate cortex, structures involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis regulation. Enriched dams exhibited increased Crouching levels in comparison to standard reared dams. In the offspring of both kinds of dams, social isolation reduced body weight, decreased Immobility, and increased Swimming during FST. Moreover, isolated offspring of enriched dams exhibited higher levels of Climbing in comparison to controls. Interestingly, in the amygdala of both isolated and control offspring of enriched dams we found a lower number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in response to FST and a higher number of GRs in comparison to the offspring of standard dams. These results highlight the profound influence of a stressful condition, such as the social isolation, on the brain of adolescent rats, and underline intergenerational effects of maternal experiences in regulating the offspring response to stress

    Perfil de pacientes con trastorno delespectro autista y otras comorbilidades atendidos en una escuela de odontología

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    Objetiva-se avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista(TEA) atendidos na Disciplina de Atendimento Odontológico do Paciente com Necessidades Especiais (PNE) da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). A partir dos prontuários odontológicos dos pacientes atendidos em nível ambulatorial entre os anos de 2001 e 2019 foram obtidas informações em relação a idade do paciente no primeiro atendimento, gênero, forma de acesso, condição sistêmica do paciente com TEA, medicamento de uso contínuo utilizado e tratamento recebido em sua última visita a clínica. Os dados foram tabulados em planilha Excel®e analisadoscom base no valor percentual.Verificou-se que 6,4% dos pacientes especiaisatendidos na disciplina apresentavam TEA, sendo 75,3% do gênero masculino com uma média de idade de 19,56anos. Destes pacientes, 78,3% faziam uso de medicação sendo as mais frequentes os antipsicóticos (60,8%), anticonvulsivantes (39,2%), antidepressivos (12,4%) e ansiolíticos (11,3%). Os tratamentos mais realizados em sua última visita clínica foram prevenção (36%), periodontal (17,5%), dentística (14,4%) e cirurgia(13,4%). Destaca-se assim, a importância de o cirurgião-dentista estar atento às condições sistêmicas associadas dos pacientes com TEA, as quais estão ligadas ao uso de medicamentos e deve possuir o conhecimento farmacológico, para possibilitar um atendimento clínico com segurança, tendo em vista que há probabilidade de manifestações bucais e sistêmicas com o uso destes medicamentos, além de suas reações adversas.The objective is to evaluate the profile of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated in the Disciplineof Dental Care for Patients with Special Needs (SNP) of the Dentistry School of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS).From the dental records of patients treated at an outpatient level between 2001 and 2019, information was obtained regarding the patient's age at the first visit, gender, form of access, systemic condition of the patient with ASD, continuous use ofmedication and treatment received on their last visit to the clinic.The data were tabulated in an Excel® spreadsheet and analyzed based on the percentage value. It was found that the ASD represented 6,4% of the SNPs attended in the discipline, with 75,3%male with a median age of 19,56 years coming from Porto Alegre. Of these patients, 78,3% were taking medication, the most frequent being: antipsychotics (60,8%), anticonvulsants (39.2%),antidepressants (12,4%) and anxiolytics (11,3%). The most frequent treatments performed in the last clinical visit were prevention (36%), periodontal (17,5%), dentistry (14,4%) and surgery (13,4%). We conclude that it is important for dentists to be aware of the systemic and associated conditions of patients with ASD as highlighted, which are also linked to the use of medications and to have pharmacological knowledge, so that they can safely serve them in clinical practice, considering that there is a probability of oral and systemic manifestations with the use of these drugs, in addition to their adverse reactions.El objetivo es evaluar el perfil de los pacientes con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) tratados en la Disciplina de Atención Odontológica para Pacientes con Necesidades Especiales (PNE) de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). A partir de los registros dentales de los pacientes atendidos de forma ambulatoria entre 2001 y 2019 se obtuvo información sobre la edad del paciente en la primera visita, sexo, forma de acceso, estado sistémico del paciente con TEA, medicación de uso continuo y tratamiento recibido en su última visita a la clínica. Los datos se tabularon en una hoja de cálculo de Excel® y se analizaron con base en el valor porcentual. Se encontró que el 6,4% de los pacientes especiales atendidos en la disciplina tenían TEA y el 75,3% eran varones con una edad media de 19,56 años. De estos pacientes, el 78,3% tomaba medicación, siendo los más frecuentes antipsicóticos (60,8%), anticonvulsivos (39,2%), antidepresivos (12,4%) y ansiolíticos (11,3%). Los tratamientos más frecuentes realizados en su última visita clínica fueron prevención (36%), periodontal (17,5%), odontología (14,4%) y cirugía (13,4%). De ahí la importancia de que el cirujano dentista conozca las condiciones sistémicas asociadas de los pacientes con TEA, las cuales están vinculadas al uso de medicamentos y deben tener conocimientos farmacológicos, para posibilitar una atención clínica segura, considerando que existe una probabilidad de manifestaciones orales y sistémicas. con el uso de estos fármacos, además de sus reacciones adversas

    Trauma dentario en un paciente con trastorno del espectro autista. Reporte de caso clínico

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    A 12-year-old girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, and intellectual deficit, was seen at the dental clinic for patients with special needs at the Dental School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, due to a gingival hemorrhage on tooth 21, after a fall due to a seizure. The clinical examination of the patient identified active caries and the presence of visible biofilm on almost all dental surfaces. A radiographic exam of tooth 21 showed a fracture in the middle-third root of the tooth. All the necessary dental procedures were carried out during the endodontic treatment on tooth 21, filling the canal with calcium hydroxide paste. During the beginning of the care, the patient presented an agitated behavior requiring specialized management, always keeping the caregiver in the same clinical setting so that the patient felt welcomed. It concluded the knowledge of the particularities of the patient-reported with ASD was of utmost importance for the conduct of her dental treatment, enabling appropriate behaviors in her rehabilitation.Se presenta una niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), epilepsia y déficit intelectual, quien fue llevada a la clínica odontológica para pacientes con necesidades especiales de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, por sangrado gingival a la altura del diente 21, luego de caer por una convulsión. El examen clínico identificó una paciente con lesiones de caries activas y se observó la presencia de biofilm visible en casi todas las superficies dentales. El examen radiográfico del diente 21 mostró una fractura en el tercio medio radicular del mismo. Se realizaron todos los procedimientos dentales necesarios para realizar el tratamiento de endodoncia del 21, rellenando el conducto con pasta de hidróxido de calcio. Al inicio de la atención odontológica, la paciente presentó un comportamiento agitado que requirió un manejo especializado, manteniendo siempre al cuidador en el ambiente clínico, para que el paciente se sintiera bienvenido. Se concluyó que el conocimiento de las particularidades de la paciente reportada con TEA fue de suma importancia para la realización de su tratamiento odontológico, permitiendo tener comportamientos adecuados en su rehabilitación

    Rapid, progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the hip in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and tertiary syphilis: case report

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    BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far.This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction. CASE PRESENTATION: On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative.Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection

    Influence of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment on Coping Response to Stress and Expression of c-Fos and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Adolescent Offspring

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    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation. For this purpose female Wistar rats were housed from weaning to breeding age in enriched or standard environments. Subsequently, all females were mated and housed in standard conditions until offspring weaning. On the first post partum day (ppd 1), mother-pup interactions in undisturbed conditions were recorded. Further, after weaning the male pups were reared for 2 weeks under social isolation or in standard conditions, and then submitted or not to a single-session Forced Swim Test (FST). Offspring's neuronal activation and plastic changes were identified by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and assessed by using stereological analysis. The biochemical correlates were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala and cingulate cortex, structures involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis regulation. Enriched dams exhibited increased Crouching levels in comparison to standard reared dams. In the offspring of both kinds of dams, social isolation reduced body weight, decreased Immobility, and increased Swimming during FST. Moreover, isolated offspring of enriched dams exhibited higher levels of Climbing in comparison to controls. Interestingly, in the amygdala of both isolated and control offspring of enriched dams we found a lower number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in response to FST and a higher number of GRs in comparison to the offspring of standard dams. These results highlight the profound influence of a stressful condition, such as the social isolation, on the brain of adolescent rats, and underline intergenerational effects of maternal experiences in regulating the offspring response to stress

    Strong margin influence on the Arctic Ocean Barium Cycle revealed by pan‐Arctic synthesis

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    © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Whitmore, L., Shiller, A., Horner, T., Xiang, Y., Auro, M., Bauch, D., Dehairs, F., Lam, P., Li, J., Maldonado, M., Mears, C., Newton, R., Pasqualini, A., Planquette, H., Rember, R., & Thomas, H. Strong margin influence on the Arctic Ocean Barium Cycle revealed by pan‐Arctic synthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127(4), (2022): e2021JC017417, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jc017417.Early studies revealed relationships between barium (Ba), particulate organic carbon and silicate, suggesting applications for Ba as a paleoproductivity tracer and as a tracer of modern ocean circulation. But, what controls the distribution of barium (Ba) in the oceans? Here, we investigated the Arctic Ocean Ba cycle through a one-of-a-kind data set containing dissolved (dBa), particulate (pBa), and stable isotope Ba ratio (δ138Ba) data from four Arctic GEOTRACES expeditions conducted in 2015. We hypothesized that margins would be a substantial source of Ba to the Arctic Ocean water column. The dBa, pBa, and δ138Ba distributions all suggest significant modification of inflowing Pacific seawater over the shelves, and the dBa mass balance implies that ∼50% of the dBa inventory (upper 500 m of the Arctic water column) was supplied by nonconservative inputs. Calculated areal dBa fluxes are up to 10 μmol m−2 day−1 on the margin, which is comparable to fluxes described in other regions. Applying this approach to dBa data from the 1994 Arctic Ocean Survey yields similar results. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago did not appear to have a similar margin source; rather, the dBa distribution in this section is consistent with mixing of Arctic Ocean-derived waters and Baffin Bay-derived waters. Although we lack enough information to identify the specifics of the shelf sediment Ba source, we suspect that a sedimentary remineralization and terrigenous sources (e.g., submarine groundwater discharge or fluvial particles) are contributors.This research was supported by the National Science Foundation [OCE-1434312 (AMS), OCE-1436666 (RN), OCE-1535854 (PL), OCE-1736949, OCE-2023456 (TJH), and OCE-1829563 (R. Anderson for open access support)], Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)-Climate Change and Atmospheric Research (CCAR) Program (MTM), and LEFE-CYBER EXPATE (HP). HT acknowledges support by the Canadian GEOTRACES via NSERC-CCAR and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD): MOPGA-GRI (Make Our Planet Great Again—Research Initiative) sponsored by BMBF (Federal German Ministry of Education and Research; Grant No. 57429828)
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