1,257 research outputs found

    Response of female Cydia molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to plant derived volatiles

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    Peach shoot volatiles were attractive to mated female oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck), in a dual choice arena. No preference was observed between leaf odours from the principle host plant, peach, and the secondary host plant, apple. Twenty-two compounds were identified in headspace volatiles of peach shoots using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Green leaf volatiles accounted for more than 50% of the total emitted volatiles. A bioassay-assisted fractionation using different sorbent polymers indicated an attractant effect of compounds with a chain length of 6-8 carbon atoms. The major compounds of this fraction were tested either singly or in combinations for behavioural response of females. Significant bioactivity was found for a three-component mixture of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and benzaldehyde in a 4:1:1 ratio. This synthetic mixture elicited a similar attractant effect as the full natural blend from peach shoots as well as the bioactive fractio

    A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

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    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5~GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e/ŌÄe/\pi separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.Comment: To appear in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research,

    Production of the soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3 by myeloid, but not plasmacytoid, dendritic cells

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    PTX3 is a prototypic of long pentraxin consisting of an N-terminal portion coupled to a C-terminal pentraxin domain, the latter related to short pentraxins (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component). PTX3 is a soluble pattern recognition receptor, which plays a non-redundant role in resistance against selected pathogens and in female fertility. The present study was designed to analyze the production of PTX3 by human dendritic cells (DC) and to define the role of different innate immunity receptors in its induction. Human monocyte-derived DC produced copious amounts of PTX3 in response to microbial ligands engaging different members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1 through TLR6), whereas engagement of the mannose receptor had no substantial effect. DC were better producers of PTX3 than monocytes and macrophages. Freshly isolated peripheral blood myeloid DC produced PTX3 in response to diverse microbial stimuli. In contrast, plasmacytoid DC exposed to influenza virus or to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides engaging TLR9, did not produce PTX3. PTX3-expressing DC were present in inflammatory lymph nodes from HIV-infected patients. These results suggest that DC of myelomonocytic origin are a major source of PTX3, a molecule which facilitates pathogen recognition and subsequent activation of innate and adaptive immunity

    Osteogenic potential of fast set bioceramic cements: Molecular and in vitro study

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    Recently, pre-mixed bioceramics in fast set formulations have been increasingly utilized in clinical practice as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for their shorter setting time and better handling properties. However, the impact on their osteogenic potential, due to modifications in chemical composition to promote a fast setting, is still unclear. This molecular and in vitro study compared the osteogenic potential of root repairing material putty fast set (FSP) with root-repairing material putty (RRMPU), root-repairing material paste (RRMPA), Biodentine™ and MTA. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences among the tricalcium silicate materials in terms of osteogenic potential. Standardized discs were cultured with MG-63 human osteoblastic-like cells to assess biocompatibility, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteogenic potential. Biocompatibility was evaluated at baseline and after 24 and 48 h. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed after 15 days. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVAs and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05). All materials showed biocompatibility and bioactivity. ALP activity, which induces mineral nodule deposition, increased in all the cements tested, with a significant increase in RRMPU (p < 0.001) and FSP (p < 0.001) samples versus MTA. In vitro mineralization was significantly increased for RRMPU (p < 0.0001), FSP (p = 0.00012) and Biodentine™ (p < 0.0001) versus MTA. The bioceramics tested showed higher levels of biocompatibility and bioactivity than MTA; a higher capacity for mineralization was observed with RRMPU and FSP versus MTA
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