334 research outputs found

    Potentiality of protein fractions from the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) for pasta formulation

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    House cricket (Acheta domesticus; AD) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor; TM) are two promising insect species for possible novel food applications. In this research the insect protein fractions were extracted, characterised, and used in the manufacturing of pasta by replacing semolina with 14% of powdered proteins. Pasta samples were then analysed to evaluate technological quality aspects. Results showed that insect protein inclusion resulted in a darker (L* value: 76.7, 53.4, 59.9 for control, AD and TM, respectively) and firmer (12.4, 13.7, 13.8 N: control, AD and TM, respectively) AD and TM pasta, and a higher water absorption index for AD (148, 178, 150%: control, AD and TM, respectively). In conclusion, both extracts offer interesting opportunity for pasta formulations, possibly leading to an improved protein content and quality. From an industrial perspective, the present study demonstrated that the tested edible insects can provide protein extracts for the possible fortification of pasta with high-quality protein and technological traits, thus representing an ingredient with interesting potential for several food applications

    Effect of Moringa oleifera L. Leaf Powder Addition on the Phenolic Bioaccessibility and on In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Durum Wheat Fresh Pasta

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    Fresh pasta was formulated by replacing wheat semolina with 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g (w/w) of Moringa oleifera L. leaf powder (MOLP). The samples (i.e., M0, M5, M10, and M15 as a function of the substitution level) were cooked by boiling. The changes in the phenolic bioaccessibility and the in vitro starch digestibility were considered. On the cooked-to-optimum samples, by means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry, 152 polyphenols were putatively annotated with the greatest content recorded for M15 pasta, being 2.19 mg/g dry matter (p < 0.05). Multivariate statistics showed that stigmastanol ferulate (VIP score = 1.22) followed by isomeric forms of kaempferol (VIP scores = 1.19) and other phenolic acids (i.e., schottenol/sitosterol ferulate and 24-methylcholestanol ferulate) were the most affected compounds through the in vitro static digestion process. The inclusion of different levels of MOLP in the recipe increased the slowly digestible starch fractions and decreased the rapidly digestible starch fractions and the starch hydrolysis index of the cooked-to-optimum samples. The present results showed that MOLP could be considered a promising ingredient in fresh pasta formulation

    Effect of Moringa oleifera L. Leaf Powder Addition on the Phenolic Bioaccessibility and on In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Durum Wheat Fresh Pasta

    Get PDF
    Fresh pasta was formulated by replacing wheat semolina with 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g (w/w) of Moringa oleifera L. leaf powder (MOLP). The samples (i.e., M0, M5, M10, and M15 as a function of the substitution level) were cooked by boiling. The changes in the phenolic bioaccessibility and the in vitro starch digestibility were considered. On the cooked-to-optimum samples, by means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry, 152 polyphenols were putatively annotated with the greatest content recorded for M15 pasta, being 2.19 mg/g dry matter (p < 0.05). Multivariate statistics showed that stigmastanol ferulate (VIP score = 1.22) followed by isomeric forms of kaempferol (VIP scores = 1.19) and other phenolic acids (i.e., schottenol/sitosterol ferulate and 24-methylcholestanol ferulate) were the most affected compounds through the in vitro static digestion process. The inclusion of different levels of MOLP in the recipe increased the slowly digestible starch fractions and decreased the rapidly digestible starch fractions and the starch hydrolysis index of the cooked-to-optimum samples. The present results showed that MOLP could be considered a promising ingredient in fresh pasta formulation

    Phenotype reversion as “natural gene therapy” in Fanconi anemia by a gene conversion event

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    Somatic mosaicism appears as a recurrent phenomenon among patients suffering from Fanconi anemia (FA), but its direct prognostic significance mostly remains an open question. The clinical picture of FA mosaic subjects could indeed vary from just mild features to severe hematologic failure. Here, we illustrate the case of a proband whose FA familiarity, modest signs (absence of hematological anomalies and fertility issues), and chromosome fragility test transition to negative overtime were suggestive of somatic mosaicism. In line with this hypothesis, genetic testing on patient’s peripheral blood and buccal swab reported the presence of the only FANCA paternal variant (FANCA:c.2638C>T, p. Arg880*) and of both parental alleles (the additional FANCA:c.3164G>A, p. Arg1055Gln), respectively. Moreover, the SNP analysis performed on the same biological specimens allowed us to attribute the proband’s mosaicism status to a possible gene conversion mechanism. Our case clearly depicts the positive association between somatic mosaicism and the proband's favorable clinical course due to the occurrence of the reversion event at the hematopoietic stem cell level. Since this condition concerns only a limited subgroup of FA individuals, the accurate evaluation of the origin and extent of clonality would be key to steer clinicians toward the most appropriate therapeutic decision for their FA mosaic patients

    Liddle syndrome: Review of the literature and description of a new case

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    Liddle syndrome is an inherited form of low-renin hypertension, transmitted with an autosomal dominant pattern. The molecular basis of Liddle syndrome resides in germline mutations of the SCNN1A, SCNN1B and SCNN1G genes, encoding the α, β, and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), respectively. To date, 31 different causative mutations have been reported in 72 families from four continents. The majority of the substitutions cause an increased expression of the channel at the distal nephron apical membrane, with subsequent enhanced renal sodium reabsorption. The most common clinical presentation of the disease is early onset hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, suppressed plasma renin activity and low plasma aldosterone. Consequently, treatment of Liddle syndrome is based on the administration of ENaC blockers, amiloride and triamterene. Herein, we discuss the genetic basis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of Liddle syndrome. Finally, we report a new case in an Italian family, caused by a SCNN1B p.Pro618Leu substitution

    Ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers: Analysis of prognostic factors and survival

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    OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical–pathological characteristics and outcome between sporadic ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer in patents with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ovarian cancer treated between 2000 and 2009 who tested positive for BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCA+) and a control group of 64 age-matched patients with no family history of breast/ovarian cancer (controls) were enrolled. Clinical–pathological characteristics, surgical outcome, overall (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The high-grade serous histotype was more represented in BRCA+ than in controls (70.8% versus 53.1%) (p > 0.05). BRCA+ cancers were more frequently diagnosed at stage II than controls (20.83% versus 4.69%) (p = 0.024). Radical primary surgery was performed in 70% of women in both groups, with no difference in debulking results. In patients undergoing surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in all BRCA+ patients, optimal cytoreduction was achieved (versus 70% of the controls). PFS was significantly longer for BRCA+ patients compared to controls (60 months versus 22 months; p = 0.039). No significant difference was observed in OS between BRCA+ patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: At a median follow-up time of 46 months, BRCA+ patients have a better prognosis than controls in terms of PFS. Higher chemosensitivity of BRCA+ tumours was observed

    Close linkage with the RET protooncogene and boundaries of deletion mutations in autosomal dominant Hirschsprung disease

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    Tight linkage with the RET proto-oncogene (Zmax = 3.41 at θ = 0.00), analysis of recombinants and detection of a familial microdeletion in a large pedigree restrict the mapping of the Hirschsprung (HSCR) gene previously localized on proximal 10q. The molecular characterization of the familial microdeletion and of 3 additional cytogenetically visible de novo deletions, isolated in somatic cell hybrids, identify a smallest region of overlap of 250 Kb. This contains the RET proto-oncogene where missense mutations causing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) phenotype were recently found. The pentagastrin test (which detects preclinical forms of MEN 2A or B) is negative in adult HSCR patients with deletions of the RET gene. This represents a good candidate for the search of mutations causing HSC
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