3,591 research outputs found

    Measurements of the reverse current of highly irradiated silicon sensors to determine the effective energy and current related damage rate

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    The reverse current of irradiated silicon sensors leads to self heating of the sensor and degrades the signal to noise ratio of a detector. Precise knowledge of the expected reverse current during detector operation is crucial for planning and running experiments in High Energy Physics. The dependence of the reverse current on sensor temperature and irradiation fluence is parametrized by the effective energy and the current related damage rate, respectively. In this study 18 n-in-p mini silicon strip sensors from companies Hamamatsu Photonics and Micron Semiconductor Ltd. were deployed. Measurements of the reverse current for different bias voltages were performed at temperatures of ‚ąí32 ¬į C, ‚ąí27 ¬į C¬†and ‚ąí23 ¬į C. The sensors were irradiated with reactor neutrons in Ljubljana to fluences ranging from 2√ó1014neq‚ąēcm2 to 2√ó1016neq‚ąēcm2 . The measurements were performed directly after irradiation and after 10 and 30 days of room temperature annealing. The aim of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the reverse current of silicon sensors for high fluences of up to 2√ó1016neq‚ąēcm2 and compare the measurements to the parametrization models

    Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II Upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS Experiment

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    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.Comment: 22 pages for submission for Journal of Instrumentatio

    Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

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    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Physics at the Terascale" during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R&D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements

    Investigation of nitrogen enriched silicon for particle detectors

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    This article explores the viability of nitrogen enriched silicon for particle physics application. For that purpose silicon diodes and strip sensors were produced using high resistivity float zone silicon, diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, nitrogen enriched float zone silicon and magnetic Czochralski silicon. The article features comparative studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry, electrical characterization, edge transient current technique, source and thermally stimulated current spectroscopy measurements on sensors that were irradiated up to a fluence of 1015 neq/cm2. Irradiations were performed with 23 MeV protons at the facilities in Karlsruhe (KIT), with 24 GeV/c protons at CERN (PS-IRRAD) and neutrons at the research reactor in Ljubljana. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements give evidence for nitrogen loss after processing, which makes gaining from nitrogen enrichment difficult

    Measurements with Irradiated 3D Silicon Strip Detectors

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    For the unprecedentedly high radiation level at the sLHC, the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, new tracking detectors are investigated. Among different approaches, silicon detectors in 3D technology constitute a promising option. Columnar electrodes are etched into the substrate, therefore the distance for charge collection and depletion is decoupled from the detector thickness. Thus, two of the detrimental effects caused by radiation in silicon (increased depletion voltage and charge carrier trapping) can be reduced. Results of measurements with irradiated 3D silicon strip detectors produced by IMB-CNM are presented

    The Outer Tracker Detector of the HERA-B Experiment Part I: Detector

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker is a large system of planar drift chambers with about 113000 read-out channels. Its inner part has been designed to be exposed to a particle flux of up to 2.10^5 cm^-2 s^-1, thus coping with conditions similar to those expected for future hadron collider experiments. 13 superlayers, each consisting of two individual chambers, have been assembled and installed in the experiment. The stereo layers inside each chamber are composed of honeycomb drift tube modules with 5 and 10 mm diameter cells. Chamber aging is prevented by coating the cathode foils with thin layers of copper and gold, together with a proper drift gas choice. Longitudinal wire segmentation is used to limit the occupancy in the most irradiated detector regions to about 20 %. The production of 978 modules was distributed among six different laboratories and took 15 months. For all materials in the fiducial region of the detector good compromises of stability versus thickness were found. A closed-loop gas system supplies the Ar/CF4/CO2 gas mixture to all chambers. The successful operation of the HERA-B Outer Tracker shows that a large tracker can be efficiently built and safely operated under huge radiation load at a hadron collider.Comment: 28 pages, 14 figure

    Aging Studies for the Large Honeycomb Drift Tube System of the Outer Tracker of HERA-B

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    The HERA-B Outer Tracker consists of drift tubes folded from polycarbonate foil and is operated with Ar/CF4/CO2 as drift gas. The detector has to stand radiation levels which are similar to LHC conditions. The first prototypes exposed to radiation in HERA-B suffered severe radiation damage due to the development of self-sustaining currents (Malter effect). In a subsequent extended R&D program major changes to the original concept for the drift tubes (surface conductivity, drift gas, production materials) have been developed and validated for use in harsh radiation environments. In the test program various aging effects (like Malter currents, gain loss due to anode aging and etching of the anode gold surface) have been observed and cures by tuning of operation parameters have been developed.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the International Workshop On Aging Phenomena In Gaseous Detectors, 2-5 Oct 2001, Hamburg, German

    A double-sided, shield-less stave prototype for the ATLAS upgrade strip tracker for the high luminosity LHC

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    A detailed description of the integration structures for the barrel region of the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, the so-called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), is presented. This paper focuses on one of the latest demonstrator prototypes recently assembled, with numerous unique features. It consists of a shortened, shield-less, and double sided stave, with two candidate power distributions implemented. Thermal and electrical performances of the prototype are presented, as well as a description of the assembly procedures and tools
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