12 research outputs found

    Evaluation the effect of using thyme and oregano powder in comparison to the antibiotic and probiotic supplementation on growth, some immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chicks

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    To determine the effect of using thyme and oregano powder supplementation on performance, some immune response and intestinal morphology of broiler chicks a total of 200 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chicks were divided into the four treatments consisting of five replicates of 10 chicks each. The treatments were as control groups with no herbal, antibiotic and probiotic supplementations. control groups + virginiamycine antibiotic, control groups + protexin probiotic, control groups + 2 % of each thyme and oregano powder supplementation and Control groups + 4 % of each thyme and oregano powder supplementation. The performance parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during the study period. To determine immunity parameters on days 28, 0.5 mL of 10 % sheep red blood cells suspension was administrated to two chicks per each replicate through and at day 31, 3 mL blood samples were collected from left wing. On day 42, jejunum tissue samples were separated and fixed in (10 %) neutral buffer formalin and were analyzed by auto-processing apparatus, there after the slide sections were prepared by rotary microtome type (Manubeni, Erma-Tokyo, Japan) and the average of villi measurements was reported as a mean for each bird. The result of this study showed that the dietary inclusion of herbals and probiotic had no significant effects on FI and FCR of broiler chicks but higher body weight gain were seen with they received thyme+oregano supplementation. Inclusion of thyme+oregano and probiotic increased humeral immunity in broiler chicks compared to the control (P ≀ 0.05). Additionally heterophil, lymphocyte and their ratio were not influenced by experimental treatments. The villus length, villus width, and crypt depth were increased were the birds feed by oregano and thyme powders. In conclusion in current study some of beneficial acts toward using thyme and oregano powders on performance, some immune parameters and intestinal morphology on broiler chicks were demonstrated

    Performance analysis of anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA using the ROC curve for screening of anaplasmosis in camel populations in Egypt

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value ≀ 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p ≀ 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: χ(2) = 41.8, p value ≀ 0.001 and origin: χ(2) = 42.56, p value ≀ 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population

    Seroprevalence and Molecular Detection of Bovine Anaplasmosis in Egypt

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    Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease with zoonotic potential, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma marginale. The disease is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. The economic losses from anaplasmosis in animals is of significant importance because it causes severe morbidity and mortality in cattle. Recovered animals may become persistent carriers. Epidemiological information on the actual status of bovine anaplasmosis in Egypt is scarce. Thus, this study aimed to determine anti-Anaplasma antibody and DNA in serum samples using ELISA and PCR, respectively. In total, 758 bovine sera were collected from cattle farms located in 24 Egyptian governorates in 2015 to 2016. Sera were analyzed with the commercially available ‘Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA v2’ kit and ‘AmpliTest Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. real time TaqMan TM PCR. Anaplasma spp. antibodies were detected in 140 (18.5%) (CI: 15.8–21.4%) of the investigated sera by ELISA, and Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-DNA was detected in 40 (5.3%) (CI: 3.8–7.1%) of the positive sera by real time PCR. Co-detection of both Anaplasma spp. and Coxiella burnetii-specific antibodies was proven in 30 (4%) of the investigated sera. The results of this work confirm the significant prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis in Egypt. Raising awareness in decision makers of the public health, veterinarians and animal owners is required to reduce the spread of infection

    A multi-country One Health foodborne outbreak simulation exercise: cross-sectoral cooperation, data sharing and communication

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    IntroductionThe awareness of scientists and policy makers regarding the requirement for an integrated One Health (OH) approach in responding to zoonoses has increased in recent years. However, there remains an overall inertia in relation to the implementation of practical cross-sector collaborations. Foodborne outbreaks of zoonotic diseases continue to affect the European population despite stringent regulations, evidencing the requirement for better ‘prevent, detect and response’ strategies. Response exercises play an essential role in the improvement of crisis management plans, providing the opportunity to test practical intervention methodologies in a controlled environment.MethodsThe One Health European Joint Programme simulation exercise (OHEJP SimEx) aimed at practicing the OH capacity and interoperability across public health, animal health and food safety sectors in a challenging outbreak scenario. The OHEJP SimEx was delivered through a sequence of scripts covering the different stages of a Salmonella outbreak investigation at a national level, involving both the human food chain and the raw pet feed industry.ResultsA total of 255 participants from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, the Netherlands) took part in national level two-day exercises during 2022. National evaluations identified common recommendations to countries aiming to improve their OH structure to establish formal communication channels between sectors, implement a common data sharing platform, harmonize laboratory procedures, and reinforce inter-laboratory networks within countries. The large proportion of participants (94%) indicated significant interest in pursuing a OH approach and desire to work more closely with other sectors.DiscussionThe OHEJP SimEx outcomes will assist policy makers in implementing a harmonized approach to cross-sector health-related topics, by highlighting the benefits of cooperation, identifying gaps in the current strategies and suggesting actions required to better address foodborne outbreaks. Furthermore, we summarize recommendations for future OH simulation exercises, which are essential to continually test, challenge and improve national OH strategies

    Überblick ĂŒber Anaplasmose in arabischen LĂ€ndern in Nordafrika und im Nahen Osten und Optimierung eines kommerziellen c-ELISA fĂŒr die diagnostische Verwendung bei Kamelen

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease with a great economic importance for cattle farming that causes disorders of the hemolymphatic and immune system. It is distributed worldwide in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The economic impact of the disease is significant for animal welfare and public health. This work provides comprehensive information on anaplasmosis through a literature review of 19 Arab countries in the North Africa and the Middle East. Screening of cattle sera from Egypt was performed using commercial cELISA and real time PCR. Validation of a ‘bovine’ cELISA for use in camel sera, a ROC curve analysis was used to estimate the cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity. The number of anaplasmosis positive samples using molecular assays ranged from 4.4-61.7% in cattle and sheep in Algeria; 14.08-67.37% in cattle in Egypt; 7.5- 71% in dogs and small ruminants in Morocco; 0.6-69.6% in cattle and goats in Tunisia; 6.1-24.4% in cattle and dogs in Sudan; 62.6% in sheep in Iraq; 39.5% in dogs in Jordan; 1.6% in dogs in Qatar and 15.5-38.1% in small ruminants in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, a high number of anaplasmosis positive samples from slaughter animals was noticed. In Egypt, cattle sera revealed a seroprevalence of 18.46% (CI: 15.8-21.4%) and 5.3% (CI: 3.8-7.1%) using cELISA or real-time PCR. Some of the sera (3.95%) were also positive for C. burnetii-specific antibodies. The best cutoff value of cELISA was calculated to be 0.42 (p <0.001) for camels sera whereas this value for cattle sera was 0.4022. Trace immanence of bovine ELISA ÎœŃ•. camel ELISA methods was shown as scatterplot. Prevalence in camels was analysed finally with a cutoff of 0.42. In New Valley Delta and Eastern Desert domain prevalences of 47.4% und 46.4% were found, respectively. The simulation for 2,300 generated data with 10% error allowed resulted in 97.8% specificity. The initial aims of the thesis i.e. to write a comprehensive review fo anaplasmosis for Northern Africa and the Near East, to adopt a ‚bovine‘ cELISA for use in camel sera and a preliminary study seroprevalence study for anaplasmosis in Egypt were succesfully fullfilled.Anaplasmose ist eine Zecken-ĂŒbertragene Erkrankung und eine Zoonose mit großer ökonomischer Bedeutung fĂŒr die Rinderhaltung. Sie kann Störungen des hĂ€molymphen und des Immunsystems verursachen und ist weltweit ĂŒberwiegend in tropischen und subtropischen LĂ€ndern verbreitet. Diese Arbeit enthĂ€lt umfassende Informationen zur Anaplasmose anhand eines Literaturreviews in 19 LĂ€ndern Nordafrikas und des Nahen Ostens. Experimentell wurde eine Orientierungsstudie zur PrĂ€valenz von Anaplasmose mittels Rinderseren aus Ägypten unter Verwendung kommerzieller serologischer (cELISA) und molekularer Kits (real time PCR Kit) durchgefĂŒhrt. ZusĂ€tzlich wurden auch Kamelseren utersucht. Zur Anwendung des fĂŒr Rinder entwickelten cELISAs zur Untersuchung von Kamelseren wurde eine Optimierung mittels Operationscharakteristik (ROC-Kurve) vorgenommen, um den Grenzwert, SensitivitĂ€t und SpezifitĂ€t abzuschĂ€tzen. Der beste ‚Cutoff‘-Wert fĂŒr Kamelseren liegt bei 0,42 (p-Wert <0,001), wĂ€hrend dieser Wert bei Rindern 0,4022 betrug. FĂŒr Kamele wurde die PrĂ€valenz abschließend mit einem Cutoff von 0,42 analysiert. Eine Simulation fĂŒr 2300 generierte Daten mit 10% Fehler ergab eine SpezifitĂ€t von 97.8%. Es wurde festgestellt, dass das New Valley Delta und die Eastern Desert Domain eine hohe Anaplasmose PrĂ€valenz von 47.4% und 46.4% aufweisen. Eine ausfĂŒhrliche Auswertung öffentlich verfĂŒgbarer Litratur und von Staatlichen Quellen ergab eine mangelhafte Datenlage zur Epidemiologie und zur Perzeption der Anaplasmose im Allgemeinen in 19 Staaten Nord Afrikas und des Nahen Ostens. Die Anzahl von Anlass bezogenen, Anaplasmose-positiven Proben lag z.B. in Algerien zwischen 4,4 und 61,7% bei Rindern und Schafen, 14,08-67,37% bei Rindern in Ägypten, 7,5- 71% bei Hunden und kleinen WiederkĂ€uern in Marokko, 0,6-69,6% bei Rindern und Ziegen in Tunesien, 6,1-24,4% bei Rindern und Hunden im Sudan, 62,6% bei Schafen im Irak, 39,5% bei Hunden in Jordanien, 1,6% bei Hunden in Katar und 15,5-38,1% bei kleinen WiederkĂ€uern in Saudi-Arabien. In Saudi-Arabien wurde eine hohe Anzahl an Anaplasmose-positiven Proben bei geschlachteten Schafen festgestellt. Eigene Untersuchungen von Rinderseren aus Ă€gyptitichen Governourates ergaben eine SeroprĂ€valenz von 18,46% (CI: 15,8-21,4%) und 5.3% (CI: 3.8-7.1%) mittels cELISA bzw. real time PCR. Einige der Seren (3.95%) waren ebenfalls positiv fĂŒr C. burnetii-spezifische Antikörper

    Performance Analysis of Anaplasma Antibody Competitive ELISA Using the ROC Curve for Screening of Anaplasmosis in Camel Populations in Egypt

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value &le; 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p &le; 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: &chi;(2) = 41.8, p value &le; 0.001 and origin: &chi;(2) = 42.56, p value &le; 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population

    Data_Sheet_1_A multi-country One Health foodborne outbreak simulation exercise: cross-sectoral cooperation, data sharing and communication.PDF

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    IntroductionThe awareness of scientists and policy makers regarding the requirement for an integrated One Health (OH) approach in responding to zoonoses has increased in recent years. However, there remains an overall inertia in relation to the implementation of practical cross-sector collaborations. Foodborne outbreaks of zoonotic diseases continue to affect the European population despite stringent regulations, evidencing the requirement for better ‘prevent, detect and response’ strategies. Response exercises play an essential role in the improvement of crisis management plans, providing the opportunity to test practical intervention methodologies in a controlled environment.MethodsThe One Health European Joint Programme simulation exercise (OHEJP SimEx) aimed at practicing the OH capacity and interoperability across public health, animal health and food safety sectors in a challenging outbreak scenario. The OHEJP SimEx was delivered through a sequence of scripts covering the different stages of a Salmonella outbreak investigation at a national level, involving both the human food chain and the raw pet feed industry.ResultsA total of 255 participants from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, the Netherlands) took part in national level two-day exercises during 2022. National evaluations identified common recommendations to countries aiming to improve their OH structure to establish formal communication channels between sectors, implement a common data sharing platform, harmonize laboratory procedures, and reinforce inter-laboratory networks within countries. The large proportion of participants (94%) indicated significant interest in pursuing a OH approach and desire to work more closely with other sectors.DiscussionThe OHEJP SimEx outcomes will assist policy makers in implementing a harmonized approach to cross-sector health-related topics, by highlighting the benefits of cooperation, identifying gaps in the current strategies and suggesting actions required to better address foodborne outbreaks. Furthermore, we summarize recommendations for future OH simulation exercises, which are essential to continually test, challenge and improve national OH strategies.</p
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