9 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    SOLARIS National Synchrotron Radiation Centre in Krakow, Poland

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    The SOLARIS synchrotron located in Krakow, Poland, is a third-generation light source operating at medium electron energy. The first synchrotron light was observed in 2015, and the consequent development of infrastructure lead to the first users鈥 experiments at soft X-ray energies in 2018. Presently, SOLARIS expands its operation towards hard X-rays with continuous developments of the beamlines and concurrent infrastructure. In the following, we will summarize the SOLARIS synchrotron design, and describe the beamlines and research infrastructure together with the main performance parameters, upgrade, and development plans

    Invertebrates as bioindicators for assessing state of the environment

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    W poni偶szej pracy przedstawiono metod臋 biomonitoringu s艂u偶膮c膮 do oceny stanu 艣rodowiska naturalnego - zwr贸cono uwag臋 na szerokie zastosowanie tej metody oraz jej rol臋 w walce z zanieczyszczeniem 艣rodowiska. Bioindykatorami uwzgl臋dnionymi w pracy zosta艂y wy艂膮cznie zwierz臋ta bezkr臋gowe, w obr臋bie kt贸rych wyr贸偶niono trzy nast臋puj膮ce grupy: 鈥ioindykatory wra偶liwe, kt贸rych obecno艣膰 lub brak jest uzale偶niony od stopnia zanieczyszczenia 艣rodowiska鈥ioindykatory w艂a艣ciwe reaguj膮ce na zanieczyszczenia zmianami w morfologii cia艂a 鈥kumulatory 鈥 organizmy maj膮ce zdolno艣膰 kumulowania zwi膮zk贸w toksycznych w swoim cieleDo bezkr臋gowc贸w (bioindykator贸w) wra偶liwych, kt贸rych obecno艣膰 lub brak jest uzale偶niona od stopnia zanieczyszczenia 艣rodowiska nale偶膮: Dendrocoelum lacteum (wyp艂awek bia艂y), Polycelis nigra (wielooczka czarna), Ancylys fluviatilis (przytulik strumieniowy), Lymnaea stagnalis (b艂otniarka stawowa), Gammarus pulex (kie艂偶 zdrojowy), Daphnia magna (rozwielitka), Astacus astacus (rak szlachetny) oraz larwy chru艣cik贸w, j臋tek i widelnic. Wszystkie wymienione powy偶ej organizmy wyst臋puj膮 w wodach o wysokiej klasie czysto艣ci.Nast臋pnie opisano bezkr臋gowce, kt贸re s膮 bioindykatorami wra偶liwymi s艂u偶膮cymi do biomonitoringu ekosystem贸w l膮dowych: niekt贸re chrz膮szcze oraz motyle z rodziny (Lycaenidae). W艣r贸d organizm贸w wska藕nikowych reaguj膮cych na zanieczyszczenia zmianami w morfologii cia艂a (bioindykator贸w w艂a艣ciwych) opisano wykorzystywany w monitoringu czysto艣ci w贸d pitnych gatunek Unio tumidus (sk贸jka zaostrzona). W przypadku 艣rodowiska l膮dowego jako przyk艂ad bioindykatora w艂a艣ciwego opisano motyla Biston betularia (kr臋pak nabrzozak), u kt贸rego wyst臋puj臋 zwi膮zane z zanieczyszczeniami industrialnymi zjawisko melanizmu przemys艂owego. Opisanymi w pracy przyk艂adami bezkr臋gowc贸w akumuluj膮cych substancje toksyczne w swoich cia艂ach s膮: Mytilus trossulus, Pomacea canaliculata (z艂oty 艣limak jab艂kowy), kolcog艂owy, Eisenia fetida (kompostowiec r贸偶owy), mr贸wki oraz Apis mellifera (pszczo艂a miodna). Celem niniejszej pracy by艂o przedstawienie metody bioindykacji przy u偶yciu bezkr臋gowc贸w 偶yj膮cych w r贸偶nych 艣rodowiskach.The following paper presents a biomonitoring method used to assess the condition of the natural environment - attention was drawn to a wide application of this method and its role in combating environmental pollution. The bioindicators included in the work were only invertebrate animals, within which the following three groups were distinguished:鈥 sensitive bioindicators whose presence or absence depends on the degree of environmental pollution 鈥 bioindicators appropriate responding to contamination changes in their morphological scructure 鈥 batteries - organisms that have the ability to accumulate toxic compounds in their bodiesSensitive invertebrates (bioindicators) whose presence or absence is dependent on the degree of environmental pollution include: Dendrocoelum lacteum, Polycelis nigra, Ancylus fluviatilis, Lymnaea stagnalis, Gammarus pulex, Daphnia magna, Astacus astacus, and some insect larvae of caddisflies (Trichoptera), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera). All of the above-mentioned organisms occur in high purity waters. The paper subsequently describes invertebrates, which are bioindicators that are used to biomonitoring terrestrial ecosystem: some beetles and butterflies from the Lycaenidae family. Among indicator organisms pesented which react to pollution by changing their body morphology (bioindicators) are species of molluscs, used in monitoring the purity of drinking water: Unio tumidus. Regarding terrestial environment the phenomenon of industrial melanism occurring in the Biston betularia butterfly associated with industrial pollution is described.The examples of invertebrates accumulating toxic substances in their bodies described in the work are: Mytilus trossulus, Pomacea canaliculata, acanthocepohala, Eisenia fetida, ants and Apis mellifera.The purpose of this work was to present a bioindication method using invertebrate organisms living in different environments

    HBK-15, a Multimodal Compound, Showed an Anxiolytic-Like Effect in Rats

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    Anxiety is a common mental disorder, and its prevalence has lately increased because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, the available anxiolytics are often ineffective, and most possess addictive potential. Thus, searching for novel compounds is essential. In our previous studies, we selected a multimodal compound, HBK-15, which showed a fast antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression. HBK-15 demonstrated a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors and moderate for 5-HT(7), dopamine D(2), and 伪(1)-adrenoceptors. Based on the receptor profile and preliminary studies, we aimed to investigate the anxiolytic potential of HBK-15 using the conditioned-response rat model of anxiety, i.e., the Vogel drinking test. We performed hot plate and free-drinking tests to exclude false positive results in the Vogel test. Using radioligand binding studies, we also investigated the affinity of the compound for the聽selected biological targets, which play a role in anxiety. Our experiments revealed that HBK-15 showed an anxiolytic-like effect in rats (5聽mg/kg) without influencing the pain threshold or the聽amount of water consumed in the free-drinking test. Furthermore, the tested compound did not show a significant affinity for the selected biological targets, which suggests that its anxiolytic-like mechanism of action could be connected with the interaction with other receptors. This study indicates that multimodal compounds with a receptor profile similar to HBK-15 could be an attractive therapeutic option for patients with a聽generalized anxiety disorder. However, more studies are required to determine the exact mechanism of action of HBK-15 and its safety profile