14 research outputs found

    Caveolin-1 ablation imparts partial protection against inner retinal injury in experimental glaucoma and reduces apoptotic activation

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    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is a characteristic feature of glaucoma, and accordingly, protection of these cells constitutes a major therapeutic objective in the disease. Here, we demonstrate the key influence of caveolin (Cav) in regulating the inner retinal homeostasis in two models of experimentally elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Two groups of Cav-1 and wild-type mice were used in the study. Animals were subjected to experimentally induced chronic and acutely elevated IOP and any changes in their retinal function were assessed by positive scotopic threshold response recordings. TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 assays were performed to evaluate apoptotic changes in the retina while Brn3a immunostaining was used as a marker to assess and quantify ganglion cell layer (GCL) changes. H&E staining was carried out on retinal sections to evaluate histological differences in retinal laminar structure. Cav-1 ablation partially protected the inner retinal function in both chronic and acute models of elevated IOP. The protective effects of Cav-1 loss were also evident histologically by reduced loss of GCL density in both models. The phenotypic protection in Cav-1 glaucoma mice paralleled with increased TrkB phosphorylation and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and apoptotic activation in the inner retinas. This study corroborated previous findings of enhanced Shp2 phosphorylation in a chronic glaucoma model and established a novel role of Cav-1 in mediating activation of this phosphatase in the inner retina in vivo. Collectively, these findings highlight the critical involvement of Cav-1 regulatory mechanisms in ganglion cells in response to increased IOP, implicating Cav-1 as a potential therapeutic target in glaucoma

    N4WBP5, a potential target for ubiquitination by the Nedd4 family of proteins, is a novel golgi-associated protein

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    Nedd4 belongs to a family of ubiquitin-protein ligases that is characterized by 2--4 WW domains, a carboxyl-terminal Hect (homologous to E6-AP Carboxyl terminus)domain and in most cases an amino-terminal C2 domain. We had previously identified a series of proteins that associates with the WW domains of Nedd4. In this paper, we demonstrate that one of the Nedd4-binding proteins, N4WBP5, belongs to a small group of evolutionarily conserved proteins with three transmembrane domains. N4WBP5 binds Nedd4 WW domains via the two PPXY motifs present in the amino terminus of the protein. In addition to Nedd4, N4WBP5 can interact with the WW domains of a number of Nedd4 family members and is ubiquitinated. Endogenous N4WBP5 localizes to the Golgi complex. Ectopic expression of the protein disrupts the structure of the Golgi, suggesting that N4WBP5 forms part of a family of integral Golgi membrane proteins. Based on previous observations in yeast, we propose that N4WBP5 may act as an adaptor for Nedd4-like proteins and their putative targets to control ubiquitin-dependent protein sorting and trafficking.Kieran F. Harvey, Linda M. Shearwin-Whyatt, Andrew Fotia, Robert G. Parton and Sharad Kuma

    Mechanisms by which common variants in the TCF7L2 gene increase risk of type 2 diabetes

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    Genetic variants in the gene encoding for transcription factor-7–like 2 (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired β cell function, but the mechanisms have remained unknown. We therefore studied prospectively the ability of common variants in TCF7L2 to predict future T2D and explored the mechanisms by which they would do this. Scandinavian subjects followed for up to 22 years were genotyped for 3 SNPs (rs7903146, rs12255372, and rs10885406) in TCF7L2, and a subset of them underwent extensive metabolic studies. Expression of TCF7L2 was related to genotype and metabolic parameters in human islets. The CT/TT genotypes of SNP rs7903146 strongly predicted future T2D in 2 independent cohorts (Swedish and Finnish). The risk T allele was associated with impaired insulin secretion, incretin effects, and enhanced rate of hepatic glucose production. TCF7L2 expression in human islets was increased 5-fold in T2D, particularly in carriers of the TT genotype. Overexpression of TCF7L2 in human islets reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In conclusion, the increased risk of T2D conferred by variants in TCF7L2 involves the enteroinsular axis, enhanced expression of the gene in islets, and impaired insulin secretion
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