106 research outputs found

    A Global Ecological Classification of Coastal Segment Units to Complement Marine Biodiversity Observation Network Assessments

    Get PDF
    A new data layer provides Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) labels for global coastal segments at 1 km or shorter resolution. These characteristics are summarized for six US Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) sites and one MBON Pole to Pole of the Americas site in Argentina. The global coastlines CMECS classifications were produced from a partitioning of a 30 m Landsat-derived shoreline vector that was segmented into 4 million 1 km or shorter segments. Each segment was attributed with values from 10 variables that represent the ecological settings in which the coastline occurs, including properties of the adjacent water, adjacent land, and coastline itself. The 4 million segments were classified into 81,000 coastal segment units (CSUs) as unique combinations of variable classes. We summarize the process to develop the CSUs and derive summary descriptions for the seven MBON case study sites. We discuss the intended application of the new CSU data for research and management in coastal areas

    Genome-wide meta-analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with stroke.

    Full text link
    OBJECTIVE: For 3,670 stroke patients from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Belgium, and Italy, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis of white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV) on data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference dataset to provide insights into disease mechanisms. METHODS: We first sought to identify genetic associations with white matter hyperintensities in a stroke population, and then examined whether genetic loci previously linked to WMHV in community populations are also associated in stroke patients. Having established that genetic associations are shared between the 2 populations, we performed a meta-analysis testing which associations with WMHV in stroke-free populations are associated overall when combined with stroke populations. RESULTS: There were no associations at genome-wide significance with WMHV in stroke patients. All previously reported genome-wide significant associations with WMHV in community populations shared direction of effect in stroke patients. In a meta-analysis of the genome-wide significant and suggestive loci (p < 5 × 10(-6)) from community populations (15 single nucleotide polymorphisms in total) and from stroke patients, 6 independent loci were associated with WMHV in both populations. Four of these are novel associations at the genome-wide level (rs72934505 [NBEAL1], p = 2.2 × 10(-8); rs941898 [EVL], p = 4.0 × 10(-8); rs962888 [C1QL1], p = 1.1 × 10(-8); rs9515201 [COL4A2], p = 6.9 × 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic associations with WMHV are shared in otherwise healthy individuals and patients with stroke, indicating common genetic susceptibility in cerebral small vessel disease

    The state of the Martian climate

    Get PDF
    60°N was +2.0°C, relative to the 1981–2010 average value (Fig. 5.1). This marks a new high for the record. The average annual surface air temperature (SAT) anomaly for 2016 for land stations north of starting in 1900, and is a significant increase over the previous highest value of +1.2°C, which was observed in 2007, 2011, and 2015. Average global annual temperatures also showed record values in 2015 and 2016. Currently, the Arctic is warming at more than twice the rate of lower latitudes

    Future HAB science: Directions and challenges in a changing climate

    Get PDF
    There is increasing concern that accelerating environmental change attributed to human-induced warming of the planet may substantially alter the patterns, distribution and intensity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Changes in temperature, ocean acidification, precipitation, nutrient stress or availability, and the physical structure of the water column all influence the productivity, composition, and global range of phytoplankton assemblages, but large uncertainty remains about how integration of these climate drivers might shape future HABs. Presented here are the collective deliberations from a symposium on HABs and climate change where the research challenges to understanding potential linkages between HABs and climate were considered, along with new research directions to better define these linkages. In addition to the likely effects of physical (temperature, salinity, stratification, light, changing storm intensity), chemical (nutrients, ocean acidification), and biological (grazer) drivers on microalgae (senso lato), symposium participants explored more broadly the subjects of cyanobacterial HABs, benthic HABs, HAB effects on fisheries, HAB modelling challenges, and the contributions that molecular approaches can bring to HAB studies. There was consensus that alongside traditional research, HAB scientists must set new courses of research and practices to deliver the conceptual and quantitative advances required to forecast future HAB trends. These different practices encompass laboratory and field studies, long-term observational programs, retrospectives, as well as the study of socioeconomic drivers and linkages with aquaculture and fisheries. In anticipation of growing HAB problems, research on potential mitigation strategies should be a priority. It is recommended that a substantial portion of HAB research among laboratories be directed collectively at a small sub-set of HAB species and questions in order to fast-track advances in our understanding. Climate-driven changes in coastal oceanographic and ecological systems are becoming substantial, in some cases exacerbated by localized human activities. That, combined with the slow pace of decreasing global carbon emissions, signals the urgency for HAB scientists to accelerate efforts across disciplines to provide society with the necessary insights regarding future HAB trends

    MRP3: a molecular target for human glioblastoma multiforme immunotherapy.

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is refractory to conventional therapies. To overcome the problem of heterogeneity, more brain tumor markers are required for prognosis and targeted therapy. We have identified and validated a promising molecular therapeutic target that is expressed by GBM: human multidrug-resistance protein 3 (MRP3).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We investigated MRP3 by genetic and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of human gliomas to determine the incidence, distribution, and localization of MRP3 antigens in GBM and their potential correlation with survival. To determine MRP3 mRNA transcript and protein expression levels, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, raising MRP3-specific antibodies, and IHC analysis with biopsies of newly diagnosed GBM patients. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the correlation of RNA expression and IHC of MRP3 with patient survival, with and without adjustment for age, extent of resection, and KPS.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Real-time PCR results from 67 GBM biopsies indicated that 59/67 (88%) samples highly expressed <it>MRP3 </it>mRNA transcripts, in contrast with minimal expression in normal brain samples. Rabbit polyvalent and murine monoclonal antibodies generated against an extracellular span of MRP3 protein demonstrated reactivity with defined <it>MRP3</it>-expressing cell lines and GBM patient biopsies by Western blotting and FACS analyses, the latter establishing cell surface MRP3 protein expression. IHC evaluation of 46 GBM biopsy samples with anti-MRP3 IgG revealed MRP3 in a primarily membranous and cytoplasmic pattern in 42 (91%) of the 46 samples. Relative RNA expression was a strong predictor of survival for newly diagnosed GBM patients. Hazard of death for GBM patients with high levels of <it>MRP3 </it>RNA expression was 2.71 (95% CI: 1.54-4.80) times that of patients with low/moderate levels (p = 0.002).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Human GBMs overexpress MRP3 at both mRNA and protein levels, and elevated MRP3 mRNA levels in GBM biopsy samples correlated with a higher risk of death. These data suggest that the tumor-associated antigen MRP3 has potential use for prognosis and as a target for malignant glioma immunotherapy.</p

    Genome-wide meta-analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with stroke.

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: For 3,670 stroke patients from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Belgium, and Italy, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis of white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV) on data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference dataset to provide insights into disease mechanisms. METHODS: We first sought to identify genetic associations with white matter hyperintensities in a stroke population, and then examined whether genetic loci previously linked to WMHV in community populations are also associated in stroke patients. Having established that genetic associations are shared between the 2 populations, we performed a meta-analysis testing which associations with WMHV in stroke-free populations are associated overall when combined with stroke populations. RESULTS: There were no associations at genome-wide significance with WMHV in stroke patients. All previously reported genome-wide significant associations with WMHV in community populations shared direction of effect in stroke patients. In a meta-analysis of the genome-wide significant and suggestive loci (p < 5 × 10(-6)) from community populations (15 single nucleotide polymorphisms in total) and from stroke patients, 6 independent loci were associated with WMHV in both populations. Four of these are novel associations at the genome-wide level (rs72934505 [NBEAL1], p = 2.2 × 10(-8); rs941898 [EVL], p = 4.0 × 10(-8); rs962888 [C1QL1], p = 1.1 × 10(-8); rs9515201 [COL4A2], p = 6.9 × 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic associations with WMHV are shared in otherwise healthy individuals and patients with stroke, indicating common genetic susceptibility in cerebral small vessel disease.Funding for collection, genotyping, and analysis of stroke samples was provided by Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium-2, a functional genomics grant from the Wellcome Trust (DNA-Lacunar), the Stroke Association (DNA-lacunar), the Intramural Research Program of National Institute of Ageing (Massachusetts General Hospital [MGH] and Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study [ISGS]), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study, ISGS, and MGH), the American Heart Association/Bugher Foundation Centers for Stroke Prevention Research (MGH), Deane Institute for Integrative Study of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke (MGH), National Health and Medical Research Council (Australian Stroke Genetics Collaborative), and Italian Ministry of Health (Milan). Additional support for sample collection came from the Medical Research Council, National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre and Acute Vascular Imaging Centre (Oxford), Wellcome Trust and Binks Trust (Edinburgh), and Vascular Dementia Research Foundation (Munich). MT is supported by a project grant from the Stroke Association (TSA 2013/01). HSM is supported by an NIHR Senior Investigator award. HSM and SB are supported by the NIHR Cambridge University Hospitals Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre. VT and RL are supported by grants from FWO Flanders. PR holds NIHR and Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Awards. PAS is supported by an MRC Fellowship. CML’s research is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, and the BRC for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London. This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wolters Kluwer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.000000000000226

    On the Barents Sea Polar Front in summer and interpretations of the associated regional oceanography using an Arctic Ocean general circulation model

    Get PDF
    In August 1992 a combined physical oceanography and acoustic tomography experiment was conducted to describe the Barents Sea Polar Front (BSPF) and investigate its associated mesoscale phenomena. The study area was an 80 by 70 km grid east of Bear Island where the front exhibits topographic trapping along the northern slope of the Bear Island Trough. CTD, current meter and CP data, combined with tomographic cross-sections, presented a highly resolved picture of the front in August. All hydrographic measurements were dominated by tidal signals with the strongest signatures associated with the M2 and S2 semidiurnal species. Tomographic cross sections indicated a high-frequency (approx 16 cpd) upslope motion of filaments of Norwegian Atlantic Water (NAW) origin at the front. Mean currents in the warm saline water to the south of the front, derived from a current meter mooring and CP data, were directed to the southwest and are associated with a barotropic recirculation of NAW within the Bear Island Trough. To examine the relation of BSPF to the regional oceanography, a high resolution (1/60 and 30 vertical levels) Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas model was developed from the Semmer-Cherrin General Circulation Model (GCM) with a free-surface. Three numerical experiments, annual mean forcing, annual mean forcing coupled with semidiurnal tidal forcing, and seasonal forcing, were conducted to simulate conditions in 1992. All three numerical experiments predicted the recirculation of NAW within Bear Island Trough supporting the observed conditions. The unique experiment with simulated tides indicated enhanced mixing on the slopes and shallow topography of the Barents Sea.http://archive.org/details/onbarentssepolar109457579U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

    Acoustic travel-time perturbations due to shallow-water internal waves and internal tides in the Barents Sea Polar Front: Theory and experiment

    Get PDF
    The article of record as published may be found at https://doi.org/10.1121/1.414657During August 1992, a combined acoustics/physical oceanography experiment was performed to study both the acoustical properties and the ocean dynamics of the Barents Sea Polar Front in the region near Bear Island. Oceanographic observations from shipboard hydrography and moored sensors allowed the construction of the internal wave frequency spectrum for the area. A rapidly sampled tomographic section from a 224‐Hz, 16‐Hz‐bandwidth acoustic source to a 16‐element vertical receiving array enabled the monitoring of travel‐time fluctuations over the internal wave frequency band. To describe the measured acoustic fluctuations, theoretical expressions have been developed for the travel‐time variances which are functions of the internal wave oceanographic field, the local acoustic propagation characteristics, and the acoustical system’s properties. Both ray and mode theory expressions are generated, as the experiment was performed in shallow water and both ray and mode arrivals were resolvable. Comparison of the theory with the data shows generally good agreement. However, due to the fact that the internal wave study is a secondary objective of this experiment, the data are not of the quality eventually hoped for. Directions for future research in this area are outlined and discussed
    • 

    corecore