1,722 research outputs found

    The relation between gas density and velocity power spectra in galaxy clusters: qualitative treatment and cosmological simulations

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    We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: (δρk/ρ)2=η12(V1,k/cs)2(\delta\rho_k/\rho)^2 = \eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2, where δρk/ρ\delta\rho_k/\rho is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number kk, V1,k2=Vk2/3V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3 is the mean square component of the velocity field, csc_s is the sound speed, and η1\eta_1 is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find η11±0.3\eta_1\approx 1 \pm 0.3. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proportional because the former are a passive scalar advected by the latter. This opens an interesting possibility to use gas density power spectra as a proxy for the velocity power spectra in relaxed clusters, across a wide range of scales.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ApJ Letter

    Therapeutic and educational objectives in robot assisted play for children with autism

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    “This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder." “Copyright IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.” DOI: 10.1109/ROMAN.2009.5326251This article is a methodological paper that describes the therapeutic and educational objectives that were identified during the design process of a robot aimed at robot assisted play. The work described in this paper is part of the IROMEC project (Interactive Robotic Social Mediators as Companions) that recognizes the important role of play in child development and targets children who are prevented from or inhibited in playing. The project investigates the role of an interactive, autonomous robotic toy in therapy and education for children with special needs. This paper specifically addresses the therapeutic and educational objectives related to children with autism. In recent years, robots have already been used to teach basic social interaction skills to children with autism. The added value of the IROMEC robot is that play scenarios have been developed taking children's specific strengths and needs into consideration and covering a wide range of objectives in children's development areas (sensory, communicational and interaction, motor, cognitive and social and emotional). The paper describes children's developmental areas and illustrates how different experiences and interactions with the IROMEC robot are designed to target objectives in these areas.Final Published versio

    X-Ray surface brightness and gas density fluctuations in the Coma cluster

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    X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core (650×650650 \times 650 kpc) region of the Coma cluster observed with XMM-Newton and Chandra are analyzed using a 2D power spectrum approach. The resulting 2D spectra are converted to 3D power spectra of gas density fluctuations. Our independent analyses of the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations are in excellent agreement and provide the most sensitive measurements of surface brightness and density fluctuations for a hot cluster. We find that the characteristic amplitude of the volume filling density fluctuations relative to the smooth underlying density distribution varies from 7-10% on scales of \sim500 kpc down to \sim5% at scales \sim 30 kpc. On smaller spatial scales, projection effects smear the density fluctuations by a large factor, precluding strong limits on the fluctuations in 3D. On the largest scales probed (hundreds of kpc), the dominant contributions to the observed fluctuations most likely arise from perturbations of the gravitational potential by the two most massive galaxies in Coma, NGC4874 and NGC4889, and the low entropy gas brought to the cluster by an infalling group. Other plausible sources of X-ray surface brightness fluctuations are discussed, including turbulence, metal abundance variations, and unresolved sources. Despite a variety of possible origins for density fluctuations, the gas in the Coma cluster core is remarkably homogeneous on scales from \sim 500 to \sim30 kpc.Comment: published in MNRA

    Feedback under the microscope: thermodynamic structure and AGN driven shocks in M87

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    (abridged) Using a deep Chandra exposure (574 ks), we present high-resolution thermodynamic maps created from the spectra of \sim16,000 independent regions, each with \sim1,000 net counts. The excellent spatial resolution of the thermodynamic maps reveals the dramatic and complex temperature, pressure, entropy and metallicity structure of the system. Excluding the 'X-ray arms', the diffuse cluster gas at a given radius is strikingly isothermal. This suggests either that the ambient cluster gas, beyond the arms, remains relatively undisturbed by AGN uplift, or that conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM) is efficient along azimuthal directions. We confirm the presence of a thick (\sim40 arcsec or \sim3 kpc) ring of high pressure gas at a radius of \sim180 arcsec (\sim14 kpc) from the central AGN. We verify that this feature is associated with a classical shock front, with an average Mach number M = 1.25. Another, younger shock-like feature is observed at a radius of \sim40 arcsec (\sim3 kpc) surrounding the central AGN, with an estimated Mach number M > 1.2. As shown previously, if repeated shocks occur every \sim10 Myrs, as suggested by these observations, then AGN driven weak shocks could produce enough energy to offset radiative cooling of the ICM. A high significance enhancement of Fe abundance is observed at radii 350 - 400 arcsec (27 - 31 kpc). This ridge is likely formed in the wake of the rising bubbles filled with radio-emitting plasma that drag cool, metal-rich gas out of the central galaxy. We estimate that at least 1.0×106\sim1.0\times10^6 solar masses of Fe has been lifted and deposited at a radius of 350-400 arcsec; approximately the same mass of Fe is measured in the X-ray bright arms, suggesting that a single generation of buoyant radio bubbles may be responsible for the observed Fe excess at 350 - 400 arcsec.Comment: 18 pages, 16 figures. Accepted to MNRA