116 research outputs found

    On almost complex embeddings of rational homology balls

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    We use elementary arguments to prove that none of the Stein rational homology 4-balls shown by the authors and Brendan Owens to embed smoothly but not symplectically in the complex projective plane admit such almost complex embeddings. In particular, we are able to show that those rational balls admit no symplectic embeddings in the complex projective plane without appealing to the work of Evans-Smith.Comment: 7 pages, no figure

    Exploring the larval transcriptome of the common sole (Solea solea L.)

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    open7noBackground The common sole (Solea solea) is a promising candidate for European aquaculture; however, the limited knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying larval development in this species has hampered the establishment of successful flatfish aquaculture. Although the fact that genomic tools and resources are available for some flatfish species, common sole genomics remains a mostly unexplored field. Here, we report, for the first time, the sequencing and characterisation of the transcriptome of S. solea and its application for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and morphological changes during larval-to-juvenile transition. Results The S. solea transcriptome was generated from whole larvae and adult tissues using the Roche 454 platform. The assembly process produced a set of 22,223 Isotigs with an average size of 726 nt, 29 contigs and a total of 203,692 singletons. Of the assembled sequences, 75.2% were annotated with at least one known transcript/protein; these transcripts were then used to develop a custom oligo-DNA microarray. A total of 14,674 oligonucleotide probes (60 nt), representing 12,836 transcripts, were in situ synthesised onto the array using Agilent non-contact ink-jet technology. The microarray platform was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of sole larvae from hatching to the juvenile form. Genes involved in the ontogenesis of the visual system are up-regulated during the early stages of larval development, while muscle development and anaerobic energy pathways increase in expression over time. The gene expression profiles of key transcripts of the thyroid hormones (TH) cascade and the temporal regulation of the GH/IGF1 (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I) system suggest a pivotal role of these pathways in fish growth and initiation of metamorphosis. Pre-metamorphic larvae display a distinctive transcriptomic landscape compared to previous and later stages. Our findings highlighted the up-regulation of gene pathways involved in the development of the gastrointestinal system as well as biological processes related to folic acid and retinol metabolism. Additional evidence led to the formation of the hypothesis that molecular mechanisms of cell motility and ECM adhesion may play a role in tissue rearrangement during common sole metamorphosis. Conclusions Next-generation sequencing provided a good representation of the sole transcriptome, and the combination of different approaches led to the annotation of a high number of transcripts. The construction of a microarray platform for the characterisation of the larval sole transcriptome permitted the definition of the main processes involved in organogenesis and larval growth. Keywords: Solea solea; Flatfish; Larval development; Metamorphosis; Transcriptome; Gene expressionopenSerena Ferraresso; Alessio Bonaldo; Luca Parma; Stefano Cinotti; Paola Massi; Luca Bargelloni; Pier Paolo GattaSerena Ferraresso; Alessio Bonaldo; Luca Parma; Stefano Cinotti; Paola Massi; Luca Bargelloni; Pier Paolo Gatt

    Effects of Bioactive Peptides from Atlantic Salmon Processing By-Products on Oxyntopeptic and Enteroendocrine Cells of the Gastric Mucosa of European Seabass and Gilthead Seabream

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    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of bioactive peptides (BPs) derived from salmon processing by-products on the presence and distribution of peptic cells (oxyntopeptic cells, OPs) and enteric endocrine cells (EECs) that contain GHR, NPY and SOM in the gastric mucosa of European seabass and gilthead seabream. In this study, 27 seabass and 27 seabreams were divided into three experimental groups: a control group (CTR) fed a control diet and two groups fed different levels of BP to replace fishmeal: 5% BP (BP5%) and 10% BP (BP10%). The stomach of each fish was sampled and processed for immunohistochemistry. Some SOM, NPY and GHR-IR cells exhibited alternating “open type” and “closed type” EECs morphologies. The BP10% group (16.8 ± 7.5) showed an increase in the number of NPY-IR cells compared to CTR (CTR 8.5 ± 4.8) and BP5% (BP10% vs. CTR p ≤ 0.01; BP10% vs. BP5% p ≤ 0.05) in the seabream gastric mucosa. In addition, in seabream gastric tissue, SOM-IR cells in the BP 10% diet (16.8 ± 3.5) were different from those in CTR (12.5 ± 5) (CTR vs. BP 10% p ≤ 0.05) and BP 5% (12.9 ± 2.5) (BP 5% vs. BP 10% p ≤ 0.01). EEC SOM-IR cells increased at 10% BP (5.3 ± 0.7) compared to 5% BP (4.4 ± 0.8) (5% BP vs. 10% BP p ≤ 0.05) in seabass. The results obtained may provide a good basis for a better understanding of the potential of salmon BPs as feed ingredients for seabass and seabream.publishedVersio

    Successful treatment with T depleted autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation of refractory chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

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    Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) is a disorder due to specific platelet auto-antibodies directed against platelet surface glycoproteins. AITP in adults is usually chronic, idiopathic and frequently refractory to conventional treatments. Myelo- and immuno- suppressive chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is an experimental approach for severe chronic refractory AITP. We report a case of a woman with AITP, refractory to the conventional therapy, submitted to T-cell-depleted autologous PBSC transplantation, which obtained long term stable response on platelet count. We deem that the positive outcome of our patient depends on T-cells depletion of the graft, which reduces autoreactive T clones

    Integrated study on production performance and quality traits of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) fed high plant protein diets

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    In the issue of fishmeal replacement, besides maintaining optimal growth, a key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of the effects of plant ingredients on fish quality. It is generally accepted that farmed fish quality can be influenced by the formulation of composition of their feed. Hence, the aim of the present research was to evaluate plant protein inclusion up to 84% of the overall protein content in an integrated study on growth and quality traits of European sea bass. Three diets were formulated to contain increasing plant protein levels (50, 67 and 84%; 50PP, 67PP and 84PP, respectively), with fishmeal dietary levels at 30, 20 and 10%, respectively. No significant differences due to reducing fishmeal content were observed after 118 days in terms of growth (final body weight and specific growth rate) and feed intake, even though a trend towards lower growth performance at higher fishmeal replacement levels was observed. Fish fed diet 50PP showed lower feed conversion rate in comparison to those fed diet 84PP, while no differences were recorded between diet 50PP and 67PP. No significant differences among treatments were found in protein efficiency rate. On the contrary, fish fed diet 84PP showed lower gross protein efficiency in comparison to those fed diet 50PP and 67PP. No significant differences in biometric indices and fillet composition were observed. No significant differences were found in pH, liquid holding capacity and skin colour measurements between treatments, while regarding fillet colour, significant differences were found only for H\ub0ab. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that dietary plant proteins up to 84% of the overall protein content had no effects on quality traits of European sea bass in comparison with 50% and 67%. All experimental groups showed similar growth even though 84% plant protein inclusion negatively influenced feed and protein utilisation

    Feeding common sole (Solea solea) juveniles with increasing dietary lipid levels affects growth, feed utilization and gut health

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    Knowledge about the nutritional requirements of common sole (Solea solea) is limited and no information regarding the optimal dietary lipid level is available yet. Thus, this study was undertaken to assess the growth response and feed utilization of common sole juveniles fed diets with increasing lipid levels. Four isonitrogenous (59% protein) pelletized diets with different dietary lipid levels (8%, 12%, 16% and 20%; L8, L12, L16 and L20, respectively) were fed to triplicate fish groups of 80 individuals to apparent satiation over 150 days. A one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test and linear regression were used to analyse the data (P 64 0.05). At the end of the trial, final body weight was significantly higher in fish fed L8 (40.7 \ub1 1.7 g), followed by those fed L12 (35.1 \ub1 1.2 g), L16 (27.9 \ub1 2.5 g) and L20 (22.1 \ub1 0.3 g). The specific growth rate was higher in fish fed L8 and L12, compared to the other treatments, and it was lowest in L20. Voluntary feed intake decreased with an increase in the dietary lipid level. The feed conversion rate, the protein efficiency ratio and the gross protein efficiency were lower in fish fed L20, while no significant differences were observed among L8, L12 and L16. Gross lipid efficiency was significantly higher in fish fed low lipid diets. Histological observations showed that 19 of 36 observed subjects had lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of enterocytes at the apex of the mucosal folds and, in some cases, also along the entire fold (intestinal steatosis). The number of fish with intestinal steatosis in groups L20 and L16 was significantly higher than the number in group L8. Ultrastructure showed large electrondense lipid droplets within the cytoplasm of enterocytes and warping of the cytoplasmic membrane (steatosis); in some cases, lipid droplets were also present within the Golgi apparatus. In conclusion, the results of this trial suggest that the diet for S. solea juveniles should include no more than 12% lipids. Higher lipid inclusions not only led to a substantial decline in performance but also affected gut health. This should be taken into consideration in formulating specific practical diets for common sole

    Clinical, genetic, and pathological features of male pseudohermaphroditism in dog

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    Male pseudohermaphroditism is a sex differentiation disorder in which the gonads are testes and the genital ducts are incompletely masculinized. An 8 years old dog with normal male karyotype was referred for examination of external genitalia abnormalities. Adjacent to the vulva subcutaneous undescended testes were observed. The histology of the gonads revealed a Leydig and Sertoli cell neoplasia. The contemporaneous presence of testicular tissue, vulva, male karyotype were compatible with a male pseudohermaphrodite (MPH) condition

    Yeast-extracted nucleotides and nucleic acids as promising feed additives for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles

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    Nowadays functional ingredients have a significant potential for improving current low fish meal (FM) aquafeed formulation in sustaining growth and enhancing animal robustness for Mediterranean aquaculture. Among them, nucleotides (NT) and nucleic acids (NA) drew attention for their application in the last two decades. NT are organic molecules involved in many life-supporting pathways, and are the building blocks of NA, which stand as genetic repositories. NT are naturally present in organic ingredients, and among them FM is known to be one of the highest NT sources. When this NT source is seriously limited, fish might be under the minimum NT requirements, especially in fast growing life stages of carnivorous species. Hence, a trial on European sea bass juveniles was carried out, testing two dietary FM levels (FM10, FM20 as 10% and 20% FM, respectively) supplemented with 500 mg kg-1 yeast-originate NT or NA dose over 80 days. Thereafter, fish were exposed to one week of sub-optimal thermal and dissolved oxygen condition (30°C and 4.0 mg/L O2) to further explore the effect of NT and NA inclusion on immune response and gut microbiome alteration. At the end of the growth period NT increased feed intake at both FM dietary levels. FM20 combined with NA and NT further improved growth performance, enhancing lipid efficiency and increased anti-inflammatory TGF-b. After sub-optimal environmental conditions both NT and NA exerted prebiotic functions on gut microbiome by promoting beneficial lactic acid bacteria such as Weissella and Leuconostoc. At the same time NT in 10% FM diet increased the abundance of Bacillus taxon. In conclusion, the combination of NT/NA included at 500 mg kg-1 was able to promote growth when included in 20% FM level, assuming higher nutritional NT requirement when combined with 10% FM. On the other hand, NT/NA added in 10% FM upregulate proinflammatory IL-1b and favor beneficial gut bacterial taxa

    Effects of rearing density on growth, digestive conditions, welfare indicators and gut bacterial community of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L. 1758) fed different fishmeal and fish oil dietary levels

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    In Mediterranean aquaculture, significant advances have been made towards a reduction of marine-derived ingredients in aquafeed formulation, as well as in defining the effect on how environmental factors such as rearing density interact with fish health. Little research, however, has examined the interaction between rearing density and dietary composition on main key performance indicators, physiological processes and gut bacterial community. A study was undertaken, therefore to assess growth response, digestive enzyme activity, humoral immunity on skin mucus, plasma biochemistry and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L. 1758) reared at high (HD, 36–44 kg m−3) and low (LD, 12–15 kg m−3) final stocking densities and fed high (FM30/FO15, 30% fishmeal FM, 15% fish oil, FO) and low (FM10/FO3; 10% FM and 3% FO) FM and FO levels. Isonitrogenous and isolipidic extruded diets were fed to triplicate fish groups (initial weight: 96.2 g) to overfeeding over 98 days. The densities tested had no major effects on overall growth and feed efficiency of sea bream reared at high or low FM and FO dietary level. However, HD seems to reduce feed intake compared to LD mainly in fish fed FM30/FO15. Results of digestive enzyme activity indicated a comparable digestive efficiency among rearing densities and within each dietary treatment even if intestinal brush border enzymes appeared to be more influenced by stocking density compared to gastric and pancreatic enzymes. Plasma parameters related to nutritional and physiological conditions were not affected by rearing densities under both nutritional conditions a similar observation was also achieved through the study of lysozyme, protease, antiprotease and total protein determination in skin mucus, however; in this case lysozyme was slightly reduced at HD. For the first time on this species, the effect of rearing density on gut bacterial community was studied. Different response in relation to dietary treatment under HD and LD were detected. Low FM-FO diet maintained steady the biodiversity of the gut bacterial community between LD and HD conditions while fish fed high FM-FO level showed a reduced biodiversity at HD. According to the results, it seems feasible to rear gilthead sea bream at the on-growing phase at a density up to 36–44 kg m−3 with low or high FM-FO diet without negatively affecting growth, feed efficiency, welfare condition and gut bacterial community.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio