1,043 research outputs found

    Comparative genome analysis of Wolbachia strain wAu

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    BACKGROUND: Wolbachia intracellular bacteria can manipulate the reproduction of their arthropod hosts, including inducing sterility between populations known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Certain strains have been identified that are unable to induce or rescue CI, including wAu from Drosophila. Genome sequencing and comparison with CI-inducing related strain wMel was undertaken in order to better understand the molecular basis of the phenotype. RESULTS: Although the genomes were broadly similar, several rearrangements were identified, particularly in the prophage regions. Many orthologous genes contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two strains, but a subset containing major differences that would likely cause inactivation in wAu were identified, including the absence of the wMel ortholog of a gene recently identified as a CI candidate in a proteomic study. The comparative analyses also focused on a family of transcriptional regulator genes implicated in CI in previous work, and revealed numerous differences between the strains, including those that would have major effects on predicted function. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides support for existing candidates and novel genes that may be involved in CI, and provides a basis for further functional studies to examine the molecular basis of the phenotype

    Genomic information infrastructure after the deluge

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    Maintaining up-to-date annotation on reference genomes is becoming more important, not less, as the ability to rapidly and cheaply resequence genomes expands

    Draft genome sequence of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Avery strain A66

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    We have used HiSeq 2000 technology to generate a draft genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain A66. This is a common study strain used in investigations of pneumococcal bacterium-host interactions and was used in the seminal genetic studies of Avery et al

    BamView: visualizing and interpretation of next-generation sequencing read alignments.

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    So-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided the ability to sequence on a massive scale at low cost, enabling biologists to perform powerful experiments and gain insight into biological processes. BamView has been developed to visualize and analyse sequence reads from NGS platforms, which have been aligned to a reference sequence. It is a desktop application for browsing the aligned or mapped reads [Ruffalo, M, LaFramboise, T, Koyutürk, M. Comparative analysis of algorithms for next-generation sequencing read alignment. Bioinformatics 2011;27:2790-6] at different levels of magnification, from nucleotide level, where the base qualities can be seen, to genome or chromosome level where overall coverage is shown. To enable in-depth investigation of NGS data, various views are provided that can be configured to highlight interesting aspects of the data. Multiple read alignment files can be overlaid to compare results from different experiments, and filters can be applied to facilitate the interpretation of the aligned reads. As well as being a standalone application it can be used as an integrated part of the Artemis genome browser, BamView allows the user to study NGS data in the context of the sequence and annotation of the reference genome. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and candidate SNP sites can be highlighted and investigated, and read-pair information can be used to discover large structural insertions and deletions. The application will also calculate simple analyses of the read mapping, including reporting the read counts and reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) for genes selected by the user

    16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the human infant gut microbiota is strongly influenced by sample processing and PCR primer choice

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    Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the assistance of Grietje Holtrop (RINH-BioSS) with the statistical analysis of the data and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute’s 454 pyrosequencing team for generating 16S rRNA gene data. AWW, PS and JP received core funding support from the Wellcome Trust [grant number 098051]. AWW, JCM, HJF and KPS are funded by the Scottish Government (SG-RESAS).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Population structure of multidrug resistant Klebsiella oxytoca within hospitals across the UK and Ireland identifies sharing of virulence and resistance genes with K. pneumoniae.

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    Klebsiella oxytoca, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium of environmental origin, which can cause infection in healthcare settings. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca infection have been increasingly reported in hospitalized patients. Despite the growing importance of this pathogen, there is limited knowledge about the population structure and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant K. oxytoca. We investigated the population structure and genomic basis of antimicrobial resistance of 41 multidrug resistant K. oxytoca isolates recovered from bloodstream infections across the UK and Ireland. Our results show that K. oxytoca has a highly diverse population, which is composed of several distinct clades, and we identified one recent expansion of a clone within our dataset. Although the K. oxytoca genomes are clearly distinct from the genomes of a global collection of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex, pre-dominantly composed of K. pneumoniae, we found evidence for sharing of core genes through recombination, as well as the exchange of accessory antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes between the species. Our findings also suggest that the different K. oxytoca clades have acquired antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes independently. This highlights the clinical and therapeutic importance of genetic flexibility in K. oxytoca and the relevance of this in its role as an opportunistic pathogen

    Circlator: automated circularization of genome assemblies using long sequencing reads

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    The assembly of DNA sequence data is undergoing a renaissance thanks to emerging technologies capable of producing reads tens of kilobases long. Assembling complete bacterial and small eukaryotic genomes is now possible, but the final step of circularizing sequences remains unsolved. Here we present Circlator, the first tool to automate assembly circularization and produce accurate linear representations of circular sequences. Using Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore data, Circlator correctly circularized 26 of 27 circularizable sequences, comprising 11 chromosomes and 12 plasmids from bacteria, the apicoplast and mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum and a human mitochondrion. Circlator is available at http://sanger-pathogens.github.io/circlator/

    Genome-Based Analysis of Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia Associated with Recurrent and Mixed-Strain Infection.

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    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) bloodstream infections are associated with high recurrence rates. This study used genome sequencing to accurately distinguish the frequency of relapse and reinfection in patients with recurrent E. faecium bacteremia and to investigate strain relatedness in patients with apparent VREfm and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) mixed infection. A retrospective study was performed at the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) between November 2006 and December 2012. We analyzed the genomes of 44 E. faecium isolates from 21 patients (26 VREfm isolates from 12 patients with recurrent bacteremia and 18 isolates from 9 patients with putative VREfm/VSEfm mixed infection). Phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility was determined using a Vitek2 instrument. Genomes were compared with those of a further 263 E. faecium isolates associated with bacteremia in patients at CUH over the same time period. Pairwise comparison of core genomes indicated that 10 (71%) episodes of recurrent VREfm bacteremia were due to reinfection with a new strain, with reinfection being more likely with increasing time between the two positive cultures. The majority (78%) of patients with a mixed VREfm and VSEfm infection had unrelated strains. More than half (59%) of study isolates were closely related to another isolate associated with bacteremia from CUH. This included 60% of isolates associated with reinfection, indicating acquisition in the hospital. This study provides the first high-resolution insights into recurrence and mixed infection by E. faecium and demonstrates that reinfection with a new strain, often acquired from the hospital, is a driver of recurrence

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Wolbachia of nematodes and arthropods

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    Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes
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