10,533 research outputs found

    “Past Master”: Czeslaw Milosz and his Impact on Seamus Heaney's Poetry

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    The essay examines the influence of Czeslaw Milosz on Seamus Heaney's writing, focusing primarily on the early 1980s, which was a period of major transition in Heaney's literary and academic career, following the success of Field Work (1979) in the USA and his appointment as a Visiting Lecturer at Harvard. It establishes the political and biographical contexts for Heaney's reception of Milosz's prose and poetry, and discusses the importance of Milosz's Nobel Lecture and his memoir, Native Realm, in fostering Heaney's feelings of affinity and sense of difference. Composed in the wake of Solidarity's challenge to the post-war status quo, Milosz's reflections in the Nobel Lecture on history, art, and the artist's responsibilities had a profound resonance for his fellow exile, uncertain as he was how to address the Hunger Strikes in the collection he was working on, Station Island. The essay thus explores the range of factors which resulted in Milosz becoming The Master to Heaney, and ends offering an analysis of his poem of that title. It draws on a range of literary and historical sources, including the Heaney archives at Emory, Atlanta. Since it is the centenary of Milosz's birth, it offers a timely reminder of his importance in world literature. (Since it may not be familiar to many readers, I have included an outline of Milosz's biography at the start of the essay.) © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

    There is no upper bound for the diameter of the commuting graph of a finite group

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    We construct a family of finite special 2-groups which have commuting graph of increasing diamete

    Weight, Length, and Growth in Cutbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss x clarkii)

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    Background: The cutbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss x clarkii) is a fertile hybrid of rainbow and cutthroat trout. Little published length-weight data is available for this hybrid, and a standard weight curve is not established. Eleven Mile Reservoir is a clear mountain reservior in Colorado with a surface area of 13.4 square kilometers, an average depth of 10 m, and a maximum depth of 41 m. 80,000 cutbow trout were stocked through the ice in late winter before samples were taken.
Materials and Methods: Angling provided 171 samples which were weighed and measured (total length and fork length). Dressed weight was also determined with the scales, head, and entrails removed. Estimates of parameters a and b in the model, W(L) = aLb, were obtained by both linear least-squares (LLS) regression (log(W) = log(a) + b log(L)) and non-linear least-squares (NLLS) regression, where W is weight in kg and L is length in cm. Parameter estimates of an improved model, W(L) = (L/L1)b, were also determined by NLLS regression; the parameter L1 is the typical length of a fish weighing 1 kg. The resulting best-fit parameters, parameter standard errors, and covariances are compared between the two models. Average weight and length are considered for each month from June through October to estimate growth rates for fish stocked over the winter. Standard weights (relative to the rainbow trout and cutthroat trout standard weight curves) are also determined, along with the ratio of total length to fork length and typical dressed weight percentage. 
Results: The improved model parameter estimates were b = 2.662 and L1 = 45.32 cm, with correlation coefficient r = 0.969. From June to October, mean relative weight decreased from 101.5% to 93.6% relative to the rainbow trout standard weight and 114.5% to 103.2% relative to the cutthroat trout standard weight as mean total lengths increased from 34.4 cm to 41.9 cm and the mean weights increased from 0.505 kg to 0.830 kg. Typical dressed weight is 71% of the total weight. 
Conclusion: Eleven mile reservoir is an excellent trout fishery, capable of producing large numbers of cutbow trout in good condition. The cutbow trout is well suited to this kind of mountain reservoir and grows fast. As might be expected, the weights of cutbow trout of a given length tend to fall between the standard weights of the rainbow and the cutthroat. For the season, the average relative weight was 97.0% relative to the rainbow trout, and 108.3% relative to cutthroat trout.
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    "I think maybe 10 years seems a bit long." Beliefs and attitudes of women who had never used intrauterine contraception

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    Aim To explore, in a general practice setting, the concerns, beliefs and attitudes about intrauterine contraception (IUC) reported by women, who had never used the methods. Methods We used a sequential mixed-method (QUAL/quant) approach. A pragmatic, self-selecting sample of 30 women, aged 18–46 years, who had never used IUC), was recruited through seven general practices in South East England. Themes arising from qualitative interviews were used to construct a quantitative survey, completed by a pragmatic sample of 1195 women, aged 18–49 years, attending 32 general practices in the same region, between February and August 2015. Results Qualitative themes were concerns about the long-acting nature of IUC, concerns about body boundaries, and informal knowledge of IUC, especially ‘friend of a friend’ stories. Women were not sure if the devices can be removed before their full 5- or 10-year duration of use, and felt that these timeframes did not fit with their reproductive intentions. Quantitative survey data showed that the most commonly endorsed concerns among never-users were painful fitting (55.8%), unpleasant removal of the device (60.1%), and concern about having a device ’inside me' (60.2%). Conclusions To facilitate fully informed contraceptive choice, information provided to women considering IUC should be tailored to more fully address the concerns expressed by never-users, particularly around the details of insertion and removal, and concerns about the adverse, long-term effects of the device. Women need to be reassured that IUC can be removed and fertility restored at any time following insertion
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