643 research outputs found

    Protogalactic Extension of the Parker Bound

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    We extend the Parker bound on the galactic flux F\cal F of magnetic monopoles. By requiring that a small initial seed field must survive the collapse of the protogalaxy, before any regenerative dynamo effects become significant, we develop a stronger bound. The survival and continued growth of an initial galactic seed field 109\leq 10^{-9}G demand that F5×1021(m/1017GeV)cm2sec1sr1{\cal F} \leq 5 \times 10^{-21} (m/10^{17} {GeV}) {cm}^{-2} {sec}^{-1} {sr}^{-1}. For a given monopole mass, this bound is four and a half orders of magnitude more stringent than the previous `extended Parker bound', but is more speculative as it depends on assumptions about the behavior of magnetic fields during protogalactic collapse. For monopoles which do not overclose the Universe (Ωm<1\Omega_m <1), the maximum flux allowed is now 8×10198 \times 10^{-19} cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1}, a factor of 150 lower than the maximum flux allowed by the extended Parker bound.Comment: 9 pages, 1 eps figur

    Epigenetics : a catalyst of plant immunity against pathogens

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    The plant immune system protects against pests and diseases. The recognition of stress-related molecular patterns triggers localised immune responses, which are often followed by longer-lasting systemic priming and/or up-regulation of defences. In some cases, this induced resistance (IR) can be transmitted to following generations. Such transgenerational IR is gradually reversed in the absence of stress at a rate that is proportional to the severity of disease experienced in previous generations. This review outlines the mechanisms by which epigenetic responses to pathogen infection shape the plant immune system across expanding time scales. We review the cis- and trans-acting mechanisms by which stress-inducible epigenetic changes at transposable elements (TEs) regulate genome-wide defence gene expression and draw particular attention to one regulatory model that is supported by recent evidence about the function of AGO1 and H2A.Z in transcriptional control of defence genes. Additionally, we explore how stress-induced mobilisation of epigenetically controlled TEs acts as a catalyst of Darwinian evolution by generating (epi)genetic diversity at environmentally responsive genes. This raises questions about the long-term evolutionary consequences of stress-induced diversification of the plant immune system in relation to the long-held dichotomy between Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution

    Coupled oscillators as models of phantom and scalar field cosmologies

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    We study a toy model for phantom cosmology recently introduced in the literature and consisting of two oscillators, one of which carries negative kinetic energy. The results are compared with the exact phase space picture obtained for similar dynamical systems describing, respectively, a massive canonical scalar field conformally coupled to the spacetime curvature, and a conformally coupled massive phantom. Finally, the dynamical system describing exactly a minimally coupled phantom is studied and compared with the toy model.Comment: 18 pages, LaTeX, to appear in Physical Review

    Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems

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    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel

    Renormalization-Group Improved Effective Potential for Interacting Theories with Several Mass Scales in Curved Spacetime

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    The renormalization group (RG) is used in order to obtain the RG improved effective potential in curved spacetime. This potential is explicitly calculated for the Yukawa model and for scalar electrodynamics, i.e. theories with several (namely, more than one) mass scales, in a space of constant curvature. Using the λφ4\lambda \varphi^4-theory on a general curved spacetime as an example, we show how it is possible to find the RG improved effective Lagrangian in curved spacetime. As specific applications, we discuss the possibility of curvature induced phase transitions in the Yukawa model and the effective equations (back-reaction problem) for the λφ4\lambda \varphi^4-theory on a De Sitter background.Comment: 18 pages, LaTeX file, UB-ECM-PF 93/2

    SN1A data and the CMB of Modified Curvature at short and long distances

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    The SN1a data, although inconclusive, when combined with other observations makes a strong case that our universe is presently dominated by dark energy. We investigate the possibility that large distance modifications of the curvature of the universe would perhaps offer an alternative explanation of the observation. Our calculations indicate that a universe made up of no dark energy but instead, with a modified curvature at large scales, is not scale-invariant, therefore quite likely it is ruled out by the CMB observations. The sensitivity of the CMB spectrum is checked for the whole range of mode modifications of large or short distance physics. The spectrum is robust against modifications of short-distance physics and the UV cutoff when: the initial state is the adiabatic vacuum, and the inflationary background space is de Sitter.Comment: 13 pages, 2 eps figures, typos corrected, references added; to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Particle creation, classicality and related issues in quantum field theory: II. Examples from field theory

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    We adopt the general formalism, which was developed in Paper I (arXiv:0708.1233) to analyze the evolution of a quantized time-dependent oscillator, to address several questions in the context of quantum field theory in time dependent external backgrounds. In particular, we study the question of emergence of classicality in terms of the phase space evolution and its relation to particle production, and clarify some conceptual issues. We consider a quantized scalar field evolving in a constant electric field and in FRW spacetimes which illustrate the two extreme cases of late time adiabatic and highly non-adiabatic evolution. Using the time-dependent generalizations of various quantities like particle number density, effective Lagrangian etc. introduced in Paper I, we contrast the evolution in these two limits bringing out key differences between the Schwinger effect and evolution in the de Sitter background. Further, our examples suggest that the notion of classicality is multifaceted and any one single criterion may not have universal applicability. For example, the peaking of the phase space Wigner distribution on the classical trajectory \emph{alone} does not imply transition to classical behavior. An analysis of the behavior of the \emph{classicality parameter}, which was introduced in Paper I, leads to the conclusion that strong particle production is necessary for the quantum state to become highly correlated in phase space at late times.Comment: RevTeX 4; 27 pages; 18 figures; second of a series of two papers, the first being arXiv:0708.1233 [gr-qc]; high resolution figures available from the authors on reques

    Particle creation, classicality and related issues in quantum field theory: I. Formalism and toy models

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    The quantum theory of a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency arises in several important physical problems, especially in the study of quantum field theory in an external background. While the mathematics of this system is straightforward, several conceptual issues arise in such a study. We present a general formalism to address some of the conceptual issues like the emergence of classicality, definition of particle content, back reaction etc. In particular, we parametrize the wave function in terms of a complex number (which we call excitation parameter) and express all physically relevant quantities in terms it. Many of the notions -- like those of particle number density, effective Lagrangian etc., which are usually defined using asymptotic in-out states -- are generalized as time-dependent concepts and we show that these generalized definitions lead to useful and reasonable results. Having developed the general formalism we apply it to several examples. Exact analytic expressions are found for a particular toy model and approximate analytic solutions are obtained in the extreme cases of adiabatic and highly non-adiabatic evolution. We then work out the exact results numerically for a variety of models and compare them with the analytic results and approximations. The formalism is useful in addressing the question of emergence of classicality of the quantum state, its relation to particle production and to clarify several conceptual issues related to this. In Paper II (arXiv:0708.1237), which is a sequel to this, the formalism will be applied to analyze the corresponding issues in the context of quantum field theory in background cosmological models and electric fields.Comment: RevTeX 4; 32 pages; 28 figures; first of a series of two papers, the second being arXiv:0708.1237 [gr-qc]; high resolution figures available from the authors on reques

    Large-scale magnetic fields from inflation in dilaton electromagnetism

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    The generation of large-scale magnetic fields is studied in dilaton electromagnetism in inflationary cosmology, taking into account the dilaton's evolution throughout inflation and reheating until it is stabilized with possible entropy production. It is shown that large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strength at the present time could be generated if the conformal invariance of the Maxwell theory is broken through the coupling between the dilaton and electromagnetic fields in such a way that the resultant quantum fluctuations in the magnetic field has a nearly scale-invariant spectrum. If this condition is met, the amplitude of the generated magnetic field could be sufficiently large even in the case huge amount of entropy is produced with the dilution factor 1024\sim 10^{24} as the dilaton decays.Comment: 28 pages, 5 figures, the version accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. D; some references are adde

    Why Does Inflation Start at the Top of the Hill?

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    We show why the universe started in an unstable de Sitter state. The quantum origin of our universe implies one must take a `top down' approach to the problem of initial conditions in cosmology, in which the histories that contribute to the path integral, depend on the observable being measured. Using the no boundary proposal to specify the class of histories, we study the quantum cosmological origin of an inflationary universe in theories like trace anomaly driven inflation in which the effective potential has a local maximum. We find that an expanding universe is most likely to emerge in an unstable de Sitter state, by semiclassical tunneling via a Hawking-Moss instanton. Since the top down view is forced upon us by the quantum nature of the universe, we argue that the approach developed here should still apply when the framework of quantum cosmology will be based on M-Theory.Comment: 21 pages, 1 figur
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