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    Immune- and nonimmune-compartment-specific interferon responses are critical determinants of herpes simplex virus-induced generalized infections and acute liver failure

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    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR-/- mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR-/- (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR-/- or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR-/- mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR-/- marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR-/- mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR-/- immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR-/- mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR-/-mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections

    High performance mixed bisimide resins and composites based thereon

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    Mixtures of bismaleimide/biscitraconirnide resins produces materials which have better handling, processing or mechanical and thermal properties, particularly in graphite composites, than materials made with the individual resins. The mechanical strength of cured graphite composites prepared from a 1:1 copolymer of such bisimide resins is excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The copolymer mixture provides improved composites which are lighter than metals and replace metals in many aerospace applications

    Low density bismaleimide-carbon microballoon composites

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    A process is described for the preparation of composite laminate.structures of glass cloth preimpregnated with polybismaleimide resin and adhered to a polybismaleimide glass or aromatic polyamide paper honeycomb cell structure that is filled or partially filled with a syntactic foam consisting of a mixture of bismaleimide resin and carbon microballoons. The carbon microballoons are prepared by pyrolyzing phenolic microballoons and subsequently bonded using a 2% bismaleimide solution. The laminate structures are cured for two hours at 477 deg K and are adhered to the honeycomb bismaleimide adhesive using a pressure of 700 KN/sq m pressure at 450 deg K. The laminate composite is then post-cured for two hours at 527 deg K to produce a composite laminate having a density in the range from about 95 kilograms per cubic meter to 130 kilograms per cubic meter

    H-alpha Stacked Images Reveal Large Numbers of PNe in the LMC

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    Our new, deep, high resolution H-alpha and matching R-band UKST multi-exposure stack of the central 25 sq. degrees of the LMC promises to provide an unprecedented homogeneous sample of >1,000 new PNe. Our preliminary 2dF spectroscopy on the AAT has vindicated our selection process and confirmed 136 new PNe and 57 emission-line stars out of a sample of 263 candidate sources within an initial 2.5 sq. deg. area. To date approximately one third of the entire LMC has been scanned for candidates (~7.5 sq.deg.). More than 750 new emission sources have been catalogued so far along with independent re-identification of all known and possible PNe found from other surveys. Once our image analysis is complete, we plan comprehensive spectroscopic follow-up of the whole sample, not only to confirm our PN candidates but also to derive nebula temperatures and densities which, with the aid of photoionization modeling, will yield stellar parameters which are vital for constructing H-R diagrams for these objects. A prime objective of the survey is to produce a Luminosity Function which will be the most accurate and comprehensive ever derived in terms of numbers, magnitude range and evolutionary state; offering significant new insights into the LMC's evolutionary history. The observation and measurement of our newly discovered AGB halos around 60% of these PN will also assist in determining the initial- to final-mass ratios for this phase of stellar evolution.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, LaTeX, to be published in Proceedings of the ESO workshop on Planetary Nebulae beyond the Milky Way held at ESO, Garching, May 19-21, 200

    Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

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    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film
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