411 research outputs found

    Detecting Dark Photon with Reactor Neutrino Experiments

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    We propose to search for light U(1)U(1) dark photons, AA', produced via kinetically mixing with ordinary photons via the Compton-like process, γeAe\gamma e^- \rightarrow A' e^-, in a nuclear reactor and detected by their interactions with the material in the active volumes of reactor neutrino experiments. We derive 95\% confidence-level upper limits on ϵ\epsilon, the AA'-γ\gamma mixing parameter, ϵ\epsilon, for dark-photon masses below 1\simMeV of ϵ < 1.3×105\epsilon~< ~1.3\times 10^{-5} and ϵ < 2.1×105\epsilon~<~2.1\times 10^{-5}, from NEOS and TEXONO experimental data, respectively. This study demonstrates the applicability of nuclear reactors as potential sources of intense fluxes of low-mass dark photons

    The estimation of neutrino fluxes produced by proton-proton collisions at s=14\sqrt{s}=14 TeV of the LHC

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    Intense and collimated neutrino beams are produced by charm and beauty particle decays from proton-proton collisions at the LHC. A neutrino experiment would be run parasitically without interrupting the LHC physics program during the collider run. We estimate the neutrino fluxes from proton-proton collisions at s=14\sqrt{s}=14 TeV of the LHC with the designed luminosity, 10^{34} \lumi. By mounting about 200 tons of fiducial volume of a neutrino detector at 300 \m away from the interaction point, about 150,000 of charged current neutrino events per year can be observable.Comment: 8 pages, Accepted in JHE

    Concurrent smoking and alcohol consumers had higher triglyceride glucose indices than either only smokers or alcohol consumers: a cross-sectional study in Korea

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    Background The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a noninsulin-based marker for insulin resistance (IR) in general practice. Although smoking and heavy drinking have been regarded as major risk factors for various chronic diseases, there is limited evidence regarding the combined effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on IR. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the TyG index and smoking and alcohol consumption using two Korean population-based datasets. Methods This study included 10,568 adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and 9586 adults in the Korean Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification (KOICA) registry datasets. Multivariate logistic analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption and the TyG index. To assess the predictive value of smoking and alcohol consumption on high TyG index, the area under the curve (AUC) were compared and net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analyses were derived. Results The combined effect of smoking and alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor of a higher TyG index in the KNHANES (adjusted odds ratio: 4.33, P < .001) and KOICA (adjusted odds ratio: 1.94, P < .001) datasets. Adding smoking and alcohol consumption to the multivariate logistic models improved the model performance for the TyG index in the KNHANES (AUC: from 0.817 to 0.829, P < .001; NRI: 0.040, P < .001; IDI: 0.017, P < .001) and KOICA (AUC: from 0.822 to 0.826, P < .001; NRI: 0.025, P = .006; IDI: 0.005, P < .001) datasets. Conclusions Smoking and alcohol consumption were independently associated with the TyG index. Concurrent smokers and alcohol consumers were more likely to have a TyG index that was ≥8.8 and higher than the TyG indices of non-users and those who exclusively consumed alcohol or smoking tobacco.This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (20002781, A Platform for Prediction and Management of Health Risk Based on Personal Big Data and Lifelogging) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, South Korea) to JW Lee, and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) Baek et al. Lipids in Health and Disease (2021) 20:49 Page 9 of 11 (NRF-2019R1A2C1010043) to H Lee. Additionally, this work was supported by Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (2019-31-1293), for autonomous digital companion framework and application to HJ Chan

    Preparation of low-radioactive high-purity enriched 100MoO3 powder for AMoRE-II experiment

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    This paper describes preparing radiopure molybdenum trioxide powder enriched with Mo-100 isotope for the AMoRE-II experiment. AMoRE-II, the second phase of the AMoRE experiments, will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νDBD) of the 100Mo isotope using over 100 kg of 100Mo embedded in 200 kg of ultra-pure Li2100MoO4 bolometric crystals. Efficient purification technology was developed and adapted to purify 100MoO3 powder with a 5 kg per month production capacity. Based on the ICP-MS analysis of purified powder, the 232Th and 238U were reduced to &lt;9.4 μBq/kg and &lt;50 μBq/kg, respectively. The concentrations of potassium, transition metals, and heavy metals were lower than 1 ppm. HPGe counting confirmed the reduction of progenies from the 232Th and 238U decay chains, reporting upper limits of &lt;27 μBq/kg for 228Ac and &lt;16 μBq/kg for 228Th. The 226Ra activity was acceptable at 110 ± 30 μBq/kg. In the last 3 years, 100 kg of pure 100MoO3 powder was produced. The production yield for the final purified product was above 90%, while irrecoverable losses were under 1.5%, and all by-products could be recycled further

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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