8,237 research outputs found

    Poiseuille flow in a nanochannel – use of different thermostats

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    Poiseuille flow of a liquid in a nano-channel is simulated by molecular dynamics by embedding the fluid particles in a uniform force field. The channel is periodic in y and z directions and along x direction it is bounded by atomic walls. The imposition of the body force generates heat in the system leading to shear heating and a non-uniform temperature rise across the channel. In this nonequilibrium system, one can attempt to control temperature in different ways: velocity rescaling, thermostats or wall-fluid coupling. We evaluate and compare different methods critically by analyzing the fluctuations and time averaged quantities from various simulations. When particles will be inserted into the flow, it is expected that the dynamics will depend on the thermostat chosen. First observations show little influence of the thermostats on single tracer particles – this needs further study

    Inexactness of the Hydro-Thermal Coordination Semidefinite Relaxation

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    Hydro-thermal coordination is the problem of determining the optimal economic dispatch of hydro and thermal power plants over time. The physics of hydroelectricity generation is commonly simplified in the literature to account for its fundamentally nonlinear nature. Advances in convex relaxation theory have allowed the advent of Shor's semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations of quadratic models of the problem. This paper shows how a recently published SDP relaxation is only exact if a very strict condition regarding turbine efficiency is observed, failing otherwise. It further proposes the use of a set of convex envelopes as a strategy to successfully obtain a stricter lower bound of the optimal solution. This strategy is combined with a standard iterative convex-concave procedure to recover a stationary point of the original non-convex problem.Comment: Submitted to IEEE PES General Meeting 201

    Experimental realization of plaquette resonating valence bond states with ultracold atoms in optical superlattices

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    The concept of valence bond resonance plays a fundamental role in the theory of the chemical bond and is believed to lie at the heart of many-body quantum physical phenomena. Here we show direct experimental evidence of a time-resolved valence bond quantum resonance with ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. By means of a superlattice structure we create a three-dimensional array of independent four-site plaquettes, which we can fully control and manipulate in parallel. Moreover, we show how small-scale plaquette resonating valence bond states with s- and d-wave symmetry can be created and characterized. We anticipate our findings to open the path towards the creation and analysis of many-body RVB states in ultracold atomic gases.Comment: 7 page, 4 figures in main text, 3 figures in appendi

    Is it possible to accommodate massive photons in the framework of a gauge-invariant electrodynamics?

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    The construction of an alternative electromagnetic theory that preserves Lorentz and gauge symmetries, is considered. We start off by building up Maxwell electrodynamics in (3+1)D from the assumption that the associated Lagrangian is a gauge-invariant functional that depends on the electron and photon fields and their first derivatives only. In this scenario, as well-known, it is not possible to set up a Lorentz invariant gauge theory containing a massive photon. We show nevertheless that there exist two radically different electrodynamics, namely, the Chern-Simons and the Podolsky formulations, in which this problem can be overcome. The former is only valid in odd space-time dimensions, while the latter requires the presence of higher-order derivatives of the gauge field in the Lagrangian. This theory, usually known as Podolsky electrodynamics, is simultaneously gauge and Lorentz invariant; in addition, it contains a massive photon. Therefore, a massive photon, unlike the popular belief, can be adequately accommodated within the context of a gauge-invariant electrodynamics.Comment: 10 page

    A Multiwavelength Investigation of the Relationship Between 2CG135+1 and LSI+61o 303

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    We present the results of a multiwavelength monitoring campaign targeting the gamma-ray source 2CG 135+1 in an attempt to confirm the association of this object with the radio/Be/X-ray binary system LSI +61o 303. The campaign included simultaneous radio, optical, infrared, and hard x-ray/gamma-ray observations carried out with a variety of instruments, covering (not continously) almost three binary cycles of LSI +61o 303 during the period April-July 1994. Three separate OSSE observations of the gamma-ray source were carried out, covering different phases of the radio lightcurve. Hard X-ray/gamma-ray emission was detected from the direction of 2CG 135+1 during the first of these OSSE observations. The signal to noise ratio of the OSSE observations was insufficient to establish a spectral or intensity correlation of the high-energy emission with simultaneous radio, optical and infrared emission of LSI +61o 303. We briefly discuss the theoretical implications of our observations.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figures, 6 tables to be published in Astrophysical Journal, 10 April 199

    Optical spectroscopy of microquasar candidates at low galactic latitudes

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    We report optical spectroscopic observations of a sample of 6 low-galactic latitude microquasar candidates selected by cross-identification of X-ray and radio point source catalogs for |b|<5 degrees. Two objects resulted to be of clear extragalactic origin, as an obvious cosmologic redshift has been measured from their emission lines. For the rest, none exhibits a clear stellar-like spectrum as would be expected for genuine Galactic microquasars. Their featureless spectra are consistent with being extragalactic in origin although two of them could be also highly reddened stars. The apparent non-confirmation of our candidates suggests that the population of persistent microquasar systems in the Galaxy is more rare than previously believed. If none of them is galactic, the upper limit to the space density of new Cygnus X-3-like microquasars within 15 kpc would be 1.1\times10^{-12} per cubic pc. A similar upper limit for new LS 5039-like systems within 4 kpc is estimated to be 5.6\times10^{-11} per cubic pc.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures. Published in A&A, see http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2004A%26A...413..309
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