42 research outputs found

    Prostatic Inflammation in Prostate Cancer: Protective Effect or Risk Factor?

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    The relationship between prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) and prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear and controversial. Some authors reported that a history of chronic prostatitis may be correlated with PCa induction, while others associate chronic inflammation with less aggressive disease or consider inflammation as a possible protective factor against PCa. Four different types of prostatitis are known: bacterial acute prostatic inflammation, bacterial chronic prostatic inflammation, abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatic chronic inflammation. Prostatic inflammation is underestimated during daily clinical practice, and its presence and degree often go unmentioned in the pathology report of prostate biopsies. The goal of this report is to further our understanding of how PCI influences the biology of PCa. We investigated the main pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for prostatic inflammation, including the cellular response and inflammatory mediators to describe how inflammation modifies the prostatic environment and can lead to benign or malignant prostatic diseases. We found that prostatic inflammation might have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases. Details about PCI in all prostate biopsy reports should be mandatory. This will help us better understand the prostatic microenvironment pathways involved in PCa biology, and it will allow the development of specific risk stratification and a patient-tailored therapeutic approach to prostatic diseases

    Current Knowledge on Radiation-Therapy-Induced Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate-Cancer Patients: A Narrative Review

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    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in the United States. Among the different available treatment options, radiation therapy is recommended for localized or even advanced disease. Erectile dysfunction (ED) often occurs after radiation therapy due to neurological, vascular, and endocrine mechanisms resulting in arterial tone alteration, pudendal-nerve neuropraxia, and lastly fibrosis. Considering the influence of quality of life on patients’ treatment choice, radiation-therapy-induced ED prevention and treatment are major issues. In this narrative review, we briefly summarize and discuss the current state of the art on radiation-therapy-induced ED in PCa patients in terms of pathophysiology and available treatment options

    Impact of functional impairment and cognitive status on perioperative outcomes and costs after radical cystectomy: The role of Barthel Index

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    Objectives: To investigate the association between Barthel Index (BI), which measures level of patients independence during daily living activities (ADL), and perioperative outcomes in a large cohort of consecutive bladder cancer (BCa) patients, who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) at a tertiary referral center. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data from clinically nonmetastatic BCa patients treated with RC between 2015 and 2022. For each patient, BI was assessed preoperatively. According to BI score, patients were divided into three groups: ≤60 (total/severe dependency) vs. 65–90 (moderate dependency) vs. 95–100 (slight dependency/independency). Regression analyses tested the association between BI score and major postoperative complications (Clavien–Dindo >2), length of in-hospital stay (LOHS), 90-days readmission, and total costs. Results: Overall, 288 patients were included. According to BI score, the patient cohort was distributed as follows: 4% (n = 11) BI ≤60 vs. 15% (n = 42) BI 65–90 vs. 81% (n = 235) BI 95–100. Patients with BI ≤60 had more frequent ureterocutaneostomy performed, shorter operative time, higher rates of postoperative complications, longer LOHS, higher rates of readmission, and were associated with higher total costs, compared to patients with BI 65–90 and 95–100. In multivariable regression models, BI ≤60 remained an independent predictor of increased risk of major postoperative complications (odds ratio: 6.62, p = 0.006), longer LOHS (rate ratio: 1.25, p < 0.001), and higher costs (b: 2.617, p = 0.038). Conclusions: Total/severe dependency in ADL assessed by BI was associated with higher rates of major postoperative complications, longer hospitalization, and higher costs in BCa patients treated with RC. BI assessment should be considered during patients selection process and counseling before surgery