128 research outputs found

    On the Equivalence between Labor and Consumption Taxation

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    This article studies the equivalence between labor and consumption taxes in a stochastic context, where the government can undertake an active portfolio management strategy by investing in both risk-free and risky assets. Using a two-period model we show that such taxes let consumers make the same decisions, and can finance the same amount of government spending in each period.consumption and labor taxation, equivalence, risk

    Endogenous Timing and the Taxation of Discrete Investment Choices

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    This article discusses the effects of taxation on the discrete choice of alternative projects. In particular, it is shown that if taxation affects the optimal timing of irreversible investment, then the discrete choice is distorted as well. This result has both methodological and political implications.effective average tax rate, timing and real options

    S-Based Taxation under Default Risk

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    This article studies the characteristics of a S-based tax system under default risk. In particular we show that its neutrality properties depend on whether debt is protected or unprotected. In the former case, this system is neutral. In the latter case, where default timing is optimally chosen by shareholders, the S-based system is neutral with respect to real decisions only if the firm’s and the lender’s tax rate are equal. However, the shareholders’ decision to default is always distorted.capital structure, corporate taxation, neutrality, option pricing

    Wide vs. Narrow Tax Bases under Optimal Investment Timing

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    This article compares an ACE system with a CBIT system in an open economy. Using a real-option approach we show that, if a firm can decide when to invest, a tradeoff is found. According to traditional wisdom, a high-income firm investing in an ACE system faces a heavier tax burden at each instant. On the other hand, it finds it optimal to invest earlier, thereby enjoying a longer stream of income. If, given the same tax burden, the latter effect is great enough, the firm will prefer the ACE system. In this article we also run a simulation which shows that preference for an ACE system is a realistic result.corporate taxation, open economy, timing and real options.

    The Capital Structure of Multinational Companies under Tax Competition

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    This article studies the relationship between debt policies of multinational companies (MNCs) and governments’ tax strategies. In the first part, it is shown that the ability to shift income from high- to low-tax countries affects MNCs’ financial choices. In the second part we show how MNCs’ financial decisions can affect the tax strategies of two governments competing to attract income.capital structure, country risk, default, multinationals, tax competition

    Corporate Debt, Hybrid Securities and the Effective Tax Rate

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    In this article we use contingent-claim analysis to calculate the effective tax rate (ETR) under corporate debt finance. In particular, we deal with both pure debt and two of the most well-known hybrid securities, i.e., convertible, and reverse convertible bonds. We show that: 1) effective taxation crucially depends on the characteristics of debt, and 2) existing measures of ETR can be dramatically biased, since they do not account for debt maturity, default risk or the ability to convert debt into equity.capital structure, contingent claims, corporate taxation, hybrid securities

    Corporate Tax Asymmetries under Investment Irreversibility

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    This article studies the effects of corporate tax asymmetries on irreversible investment. We discuss an asymmetric tax scheme where the tax base is given by the firm's return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm's return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. Contrary to common winsdom, this asymmetric scheme may be neutral even when assuming a long-lasting income uncertainty. Neutrality holds even if we add both capital and political uncertainty.

    Asymmetric Taxation under Incremental and Sequential Investment

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    This article discusses the effects of an asymmetric tax scheme on incremental and sequential investment strategies. The tax base is equal to the firm’s return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm’s return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. This scheme is neutral under both income and capital uncertainty.corporate taxation, real options

    A Simple Explanation for the Unfavorable Tax Treatment of Investment Costs

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    The evidence shows that in most countries the present value of depreciation allowances is less than 100% of the cost of capital. In this article we use a real-option model with debt financing, and show that less favorable depreciation allowances are offset by tax benefits arising from debt financing. Allowing partial deduction of capital cost is thus a necessary condition for investment neutrality to hold.capital structure, irreversibility, real options and taxation

    Neutrality Properties of Firm Taxation under Default Risk

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    This note discusses the neutrality conditions of a Firm Tax. In particular, it proves that the neutrality result found by Bond and Devereux (1995) holds under different default conditions.
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