86 research outputs found

    Recent results and future prospects for the MINOS experiment

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    The MINOS experiment uses the intense NuMI beam created at Fermilab and two magnetized tracking calorimeters, one located at Fermilab and one located 735km away at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota, to study lepton-flavor violation in the neutrino sector. We present results of the precise measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters, from the search for sterile neutrinos and from the search for the θ13 mixing angle by searching for νe appearance in the νμ beam. Future prospects for measurements by MINOS will also be discussed

    Impact of the third national ‘Be Clear on Cancer’ Breast Cancer in Women over 70 Campaign on GP attendance and referral, diagnosis rates and prevalence awareness

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    OBJECTIVE: More than a third of women diagnosed with breast cancer in England, and over half of those who die from it, are over 70. The Be Clear on Cancer Breast Cancer in Women over 70 Campaign, running three times, 2014–2018, aimed to promote early diagnosis of breast cancer in England by raising symptom awareness and encouraging women to see their general practitioner (GP) without delay. We sought to establish whether the third campaign had successfully met its aims. METHODS: Metrics covering the patient pathway, including symptom awareness, attending a GP practice with symptoms, urgent GP referral, diagnosis and stage of cancer, were assessed using national cancer databases and two household surveys. RESULTS: The third campaign was associated with an increase in urgent cancer referrals, and therefore mammograms and ultrasounds performed. This was associated with an increase in breast cancers diagnosed. There was a delayed effect on GP attendances. Awareness of breast cancer prevalence for the 70‐and‐over age group improved. Impact on these metrics diminished across successive campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: Future campaigns should focus on harder‐to‐reach women and include GPs as targets as this campaign showed a potential to affect referral behaviour

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Characterizing Complex Polysera Produced by Antigen-Specific Immunization through the Use of Affinity-Selected Mimotopes

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    BACKGROUND: Antigen-based (as opposed to whole organism) vaccines are actively being pursued for numerous indications. Even though different formulations may produce similar levels of total antigen-specific antibody, the composition of the antibody response can be quite distinct resulting in different levels of therapeutic activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using plasmid-based immunization against the proto-oncogene HER-2 as a model, we have demonstrated that affinity-selected epitope mimetics (mimotopes) can provide a defined signature of a polyclonal antibody response. Further, using novel computer algorithms that we have developed, these mimotopes can be used to predict epitope targets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By combining our novel strategy with existing methods of epitope prediction based on physical properties of an individual protein, we believe that this method offers a robust method for characterizing the breadth of epitope-specificity within a specific polyserum. This strategy is useful as a tool for monitoring immunity following vaccination and can also be used to define relevant epitopes for the creation of novel vaccines

    Global wealth disparities drive adherence to COVID-safe pathways in head and neck cancer surgery

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    Development of a measure to assess falling asleep behind-the-wheel

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    Variations in subjective state are often associated with concomitant decrements in performance. Transportation research suggests that these decrements in performance are often a precursor to accidents precipitated by vehicle operator error. Although the accurate and timely assessment of subjective state may prevent accidents, many argue that this is a very difficult task and accurate prediction may not be possible due to limitations in the currently used methods. This dissertation explored the possibility that a behaviorally-based subjective measure and the psychophysical method of magnitude estimation might prove to be a reliable way to monitor a driver\u27s subjective state.^ Two studies were designed and completed. In the first study, participants repeatedly made magnitude estimates of how easy it would be to fall asleep or how easy it is to stay awake while performing a computer task battery consisting of simple addition and the Baddeley logical reasoning task. In the second study, participants made the same judgments but performed a simulated driving task rather than the addition and reasoning tasks. Four male graduate students were trained and served as participants. For all sessions, a logarithmic transformation of the magnitude estimation data was described by a significant linear function. These results provide strong evidence that the psychophysical method of magnitude estimation can be used to scale the perceived ease of falling asleep and staying awake. The behaviorally-based subjective measure and the slopes of the linear functions fit to these data were predictive of performance on the computer task battery and the driving simulator. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of using magnitude estimation functions as a predictor of falling asleep behind-the-wheel.

    Recent Results and Future Prospects From MINOS

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    Abstract The MINOS experiment uses the intense NuMI beam created at Fermilab and two magnetized tracking calorimeters, one located at Fermilab and one located 735 km away at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota, to make precise measurements of νµ disappearance oscillation parameters. We present recent results from the first two years of NuMI beam operations, including the precise measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters and the search for sterile neutrinos. Future prospects for MINOS will also be discussed, including an improved limit on the θ13 mixing angle by searching for νe appearance in the νµ beam. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment was designed to primarily confirm neutrino oscillations by allowing a precise measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters ∆m 2 and sin 2 (2θ). MINOS is also capable of searching for sterile neutrinos and the subdominant ν µ → ν e oscillation. MINOS utilizes the intense Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermi National Laboratory. A very pure beam of muon neutrinos is aimed at an underground laboratory 735 km from the NuMI production target in Soudan, MN, where a 5.4 kton magnetizied iron tracking calorimeter (the Far Detector, FD) is used to detect the neutrinos The measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters ∆m 2 and sin 2 (2θ) is accomplished by comparing the measured muon neutrino energy spectra in the ND and FD. Charged-current (CC) interaction events are separated from neutral-current (NC) events in the detectors based on topological characteristics that indicate a muon in the final state: track length, mean pulse height, fluctuation in pulse height and transverse track profile. A CC/NC separation parameter cut is determined that maximizes the CC event selection efficiency and minimizes the NC backgroun

    Play to Live, Live to Play

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    Mentor: Richard Chapman From the Washington University Undergraduate Research Digest: WUURD, Volume 4, Issue 1, Fall 2008. Published by the Office of Undergraduate Research. Henry Biggs, Director of Undergraduate Research and Associate Dean in the College of Arts & Sciences; Joy Zalis Kiefer, Undergraduate Research Coordinator, Co-editor, and Assistant Dean in the College of Arts & Sciences; Kristin Sobotka, Editor

    Tofacitinib for refractory uveitis and scleritis

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    Purpose: To report the successful use of tofacitinib in the treatment of refractory uveitis and scleritis. Observations: Two patients, one with scleritis and another with anterior and intermediate uveitis, presented with refractory disease after failure of multiple steroid-sparing therapies. Treatment with tofacitinib led to durable resolution of uveitis and scleritis. Conclusions and importance: Tofacitinib is a potential novel treatment option for refractory, noninfectious inflammatory eye disease. Keywords: Uveitis, Scleritis, Tofacitinib, JAK, STA
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