178 research outputs found

    Age-related co-morbidities in people living with HIV

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    Abstracts of the Ninth International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection Meeting abstracts – A single PDF containing all abstracts in this Supplement is available here . http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1758-2652-11-S1-info.pd

    Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

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    Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT) in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI) was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE). Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P = 0.05). Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P = 0.010) as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P < 0.001). Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%), and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%), but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs

    Fat distribution and longitudinal anthropometric changes in HIV-infected men with and without clinical evidence of lipodystrophy and HIV-uninfected controls: A substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Fat abnormalities are common among HIV-infected persons, but few studies have compared regional body fat distribution, including visceral fat, in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons and their subsequent trajectories in body composition over time.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Between 1999 and 2002, 33 men with clinical evidence of lipodystrophy (LIPO+), 23 HIV-infected men without clinical evidence of lipodytrophy (LIPO-), and 33 HIV-uninfected men were recruited from the four sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computerized tomography of the abdomen and thigh, and circumference measurements of the waist, hip and thigh. Circumference measurements at each semi-annual MACS visit between recruitment and 2008 were used to compare average annual anthropometric changes in the 3 groups.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Body mass index (BMI) was lower in LIPO+ men than in the LIPO- men and the HIV- uninfected controls (BMI: 23.6 ± 0.4 vs 26.8 ± 1.5 vs 28.7 ± 0.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively, p < 0.001). The average amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was similar in all three groups (p = 0.26), but after adjustment for BMI, VAT was higher in the LIPO+ group (169 ± 10 cm<sup>2</sup>) compared to the LIPO- men (129 ± 12 cm<sup>2</sup>, p = 0.03) and the HIV-uninfected group (133 ± 11 cm<sup>2</sup>, p = 0.07). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (thigh, abdomen) and total extremity fat were less in the HIV-infected men (LIPO+ and LIPO-) than in the HIV-uninfected men. Over an average of 6 years of follow-up, waist circumference increased at a faster rate in LIPO+ group, compared to the LIPO- men (0.51 cm/year vs 0.08 cm/year, p = 0.02) and HIV-uninfected control men (0.21 cm/year, p = 0.06). The annual changes in hip and thigh circumferences were similar in all three groups</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Subcutaneous lipoatrophy was observed in HIV-infected patients, even those without clinical evidence of lipodystrophy, compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected men. Despite markedly lower BMI, HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy had a similar amount of VAT as HIV-uninfected men and tended to have more rapid increases in waist circumference over 6 years of follow-up. These longitudinal increases in waist circumference may contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.</p

    Long-Term Kidney Function, Proteinuria, and Associated Risks among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men in the MACS

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    Background: Factors affecting kidney function and proteinuria among HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV–) persons need better characterization. Methods: We evaluated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2) changes, proteinuria prevalence (a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of ≥0.2 at two consecutive visits) and associated factors among HIV+ and HIV− men. Results: There were 917 HIV+ men receiving HAART, 159 HIV+ men not receiving HAART, and 1305 HIV− men seen from October 2003 to September 2014. Median annual eGFR change was −0.5, −0.8% for HIV+ and −0.3% for HIV− men (P < 0.001). Factors significantly (P < 0.05) associated with more than 3% annual eGFR decline were HAART receipt (but no specific antiretroviral drug), age more than 50, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking. Proteinuria existed in 14.9% of visit-pairs among HAART recipients, 5.8% among non-HAART recipients, and 1.9% among HIV− men, and was associated with subsequent annual more than 3% eGFR decline (odds ratio 1.80, P < 0.001). Proteinuria-associated factors also included HAART use (vs. HIV−), age at least 50 (vs. <40), diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, hepatitis C virus-infection (all P < 0.05) and, among HIV+ men, lower CD4+ cell count, didanosine, saquinavir, or nelfinavir use (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for proteinuria, among HAART users, having a detectable HIV RNA, cumulative use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, ritonavir, atazanavir, any protease inhibitor, or fluconazole were associated with more than 3% annual eGFR decline. Conclusion: Longitudinal kidney function decline was associated with HAART use but no individual antiretroviral drug, and traditional kidney disease risks. Proteinuria was nearly seven times more common in HAART-treated men than HIV− men, reflected recent eGFR decline and predicted subsequent eGFR declin