249 research outputs found

    Weekly versus three weeks chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. A meta-analysis

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    Aim: Three weeks paclitaxel and carboplatin has been considered the standard of care for primary treatment of ovarian cancer (OC). Whether weekly therapy will further improve the clinical outcomes or not is still unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the two regimens. Method: Articles were selected with a systematic approach, using PubMed databases. Trials concerning comparison between carboplatin plus weekly paclitaxel (dose-dense regimen) and carboplatin plus paclitaxel every 3 weeks were considered. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and severe acute toxicity. Results: Dose-dense regimen was associated with significant improvement of PFS compared with standard schedule, with HR of 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.88, p = 0.001). There was no difference in OS between treatment regimens (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.77-1.16, p=0.06), as well as in term of severe acute toxicity. Conclusion: Dose-dense regimen is superior to standard schedule in terms of PFS. Further studies are necessary to firmly confirm this evidence in advanced OC treatment

    Efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab in recurrent ovarian disease: an update meta-analysis on phase III trials

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    Background: To analyze the efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab on survival outcomes in recurrent ovarian cancer. Results: Bevacizumab was associated with significant improvement of PFS and OS compared with standard treatment with HRs of 0.53 (95% CI 0.44 - 0.63; p < 0.00001) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.99; p = 0.03), respectively. Bevacizumab increased the incidence of G3/G4 hypertension (RR 19.01, 95% CI 7.77 - 46.55; p < 0.00001), proteinuria (RR 17.31, 95% CI 5.42 - 55.25; p < 0.00001), arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) (RR 4.99, 95% CI 1.29 - 19.27; p = 0.02) and bleeding (RR 3.14, 95% CI 1.35 - 7.32; p = 0.008). Materials and Methods: Three randomized phase III trials representing 1502 patients were identified. Pooled hazard ratio (HR), odd ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed or random effects model. Conclusions: Adding bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved ORR, PFS and OS, and it had a higher, but manageable, incidence of toxicities graded 3 to 4

    Synchronous anal canal cancer and cervical cancer: report of a case and management implication

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    Background: This is the case report of a synchronous anal canal cancer and cervical cancer in a patient who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and radical surgery for anal canal and cervical carcinoma, respectively. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with cT4a cN1 Mx anal canal squamous cell carcinoma and stage IA2 cervical squamous cell carcinoma, based on biopsy and imaging. Definitive CRT consisted of radiotherapy (total dose of 59.4 Gy) and concomitant mitomycin (10 mg/m(2)) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m(2)/5 daily continuous infusion) during the first and last week of radiation. The patient exhibited a complete clinical and radiological response. A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was then performed. At the last follow-up (30 months), the patient is still disease-free without any treatment-associated complications. Conclusion: There is limited information in the literature regarding treatment strategy and outcome of patients with synchronous anal canal and cervical cancer. A two-step treatment, including CRT and radical hysterectomy, is likely to be accepted as valid option

    Fertility preservation in gynaecologic cancers

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    Due to substantial improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecologic cancers, a better understanding of patient care needs to be revised. We reviewed the literature related to fertility preservation strategies in gynaecological cancer and discussed current general management approaches. New technical modalities and patients’ own desire for motherhood should be integral and paramount in the clinical evaluation to significantly contribute to preserving fertility in those women diagnosed with gynaecologic cancers during the reproductive years

    Comparison of anogenital distance and correlation with vulvo-vaginal atrophy: a pilot study on premenopausal and postmenopausal women

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    OBJECTIVES: Anogenital distance (AGD) represents the space between labia posterior commissure and anus. This was pilot study to investigate how menopause and so lack of oestrogens affects AGD. METHODS: A total of 109 patients were enrolled. AGD was measured in lithotomy position using sterile paper ruler. Anogenital index (AGI) was used to control 2 variables of height and weight (body mass index, kg/m2). Vaginal health index (VHI) was used to evaluate vaginal wellness. Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was administered to all women to evaluate the impact of menopause on their sexual function. RESULTS: AGD (30.87 ± 2.98 vs. 17.57 ± 2.18; P = 0.0001) and AGI (1.40 ± 0.21 vs. 0.70 ± 0.15; P = 0.0001) were both significantly lower in the postmenopausal group. Postmenopausal women were affected by vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) significantly. Thus, VHI scores were dramatically worse in postmenopausal group (23.95 ± 1.28 vs. 10.75 ± 3.41; P = 0.0001) as well as FSFI results (32.68 ± 2.25 vs. 19.78 ± 5.46; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that AGD in post-menopausal women was significantly shorter than AGD in premenopausal women, correlating with an increase of VVA and sexual impairment. Changes of AGD and AGI demonstrated to predict hormonal changes that may occur after menopause

    Pelvic lymphadenectomy for cervical carcinoma: Laparotomy extraperitoneal, transperitoneal or laparoscopic approach? A randomized study

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    To compare transperitoneal, extraperitoneal and laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in terms of feasibility and morbidity in patients affected by cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy. Consecutive patients affected by stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma scheduled for radical surgery entered the study. Patients were randomly assigned to transperitoneal (TPL), extraperitoneal (EPL) or laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy (LPL). All patients underwent classical radical hysterectomy. Perioperative data were recorded. Follow up examinations were performed at the 15th, 30th and 60th day after surgery. 168 patients entered the study. The mean operative times were: 63+/-7.6, 54+/-6.7 and 75+/-8.4 min (TPL vs EPL P<0.001; EPL vs LPL P<0.001; TPL vs LPL P<0.001) for TPL, EPL and LPL respectively. The feasibility of the procedures, analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, was 96%, 93% and 95% for TPL, EPL and LPL group respectively (P=ns). The average hospitalizations were: 5.6+/-0.9, 3.2+/-0.4 and 3.1+/-0.3 days (TPL vs EPL P<0.001; TPL vs LPL P<0.001) for TPL, EPL and LPL respectively. EPL and LPL are as feasible and effective as TPL and can be adequately performed with a reasonable complication rate. LPL showed a statistically significant longer operative time. However, both EPL and LPL can minimize some postoperative complications reducing length of stay

    Systematic lymph node dissection during interval debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of systematic lymph node dissection (SyLND) at the time of interval debulking surgery (IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC). Methods: Systematic literature review of studies including AEOC patients undergoing SyLND versus selective lymph node dissection (SeLND) or no lymph node dissection (NoLND) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Primary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included severe postoperative complications, lymphocele, lymphedema, blood loss, blood transfusions, operative time, and hospital stay. Results: Nine retrospective studies met the eligibility criteria, involving a total of 1,660 patients: 827 (49.8%) SyLND, 490 (29.5%) SeLND, and 343 (20.7%) NoLND. The pooled estimated hazard ratios (HR) for PFS and OS were, respectively, 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.65–1.20; p=0.43) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.50–1.30; p=0.37). The pooled estimated odds ratios (ORs) for severe postoperative complications, lymphocele, lymphedema, and blood transfusions were, respectively, 1.83 (95% CI=1.19–2.82; p=0.006), 3.38 (95% CI=1.71–6.70; p&lt;0.001), 7.23 (95% CI=3.40–15.36; p&lt;0.0001), and 1.22 (95% CI=0.50–2.96; p=0.67). Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity in the study designs, SyLND after NACT failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in PFS and OS and resulted in a higher risk of severe postoperative complications

    The contribution of the 1H-MRS lipid signal to cervical cancer prognosis: a preliminary study

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    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the lipid peak derived from H-1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in assessing cervical cancer prognosis, particularly in assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Methods We enrolled 17 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer who underwent 3-T MR imaging at baseline. In addition to conventional imaging sequences for pelvic assessment, the protocol included a single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence, with repetition time of 1,500 ms and echo times of 28 and 144 ms. Spectra were analysed using the LCModel fitting routine, thus extracting multiple metabolites, including lipids (Lip) and total choline (tCho). Patients with LACC were treated with NACT and reassessed by MRI at term. Based on tumour volume reduction, patients were classified as good responder (GR; tumour volume reduction &gt; 50%) and poor responder or nonresponder (PR-or-NR; tumour volume reduction &lt;= 50%). Results Of 17 patients, 11 were LACC. Of these 11, only 6 had both completed NACT and had good-quality H-1-MR spectra; 3 GR and 3 PR-or-NR. A significant difference in lipid values was observed in the two groups of patients, particularly with higher Lip values and higher Lip/tCho ratio in PR-NR patients (p =0.040). A significant difference was also observed in choline distribution (tCho), with higher values in GR patients (p = 0.040). Conclusions Assessment of lipid peak at H-1-MR spectroscopy could be an additional quantitative parameter in predicting the response to NACT in patients with LACC

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

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    Several improvements in ovarian cancer treatment have been achieved in recent years, both in surgery and in combination chemotherapy with targeting. However, ovarian tumors remain the women's cancers with highest mortality rates. In this scenario, a pivotal role has been endorsed to the immunological environment and to the immunological mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer behavior. Recent evidence suggests a loss of the critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms when oncogenesis and cancer progression occur. Ovarian cancer generates a mechanism to escape the immune system by producing a highly suppressive environment. Immune-activated tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian tumor tissue testify that the immune system is the trigger in this neoplasm. The TIL mileau has been demonstrated to be associated with better prognosis, more chemosensitivity, and more cases of optimal residual tumor achieved during primary cytoreduction. Nowadays, scientists are focusing attention on new immunologically effective tumor biomarkers in order to optimize selection of patients for recruitment in clinical trials and to identify relationships of these biomarkers with responses to immunotherapeutics. Assessing this point of view, TILs might be considered as a potent predictive immunotherapy biomarker
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