3,697 research outputs found

    Potential Energy Surfaces for the Al+O2 Reaction

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    We present a systematic multiconfigurational study of the lowest two doublet potential energy surfaces of atomic aluminum with molecular oxygen. The most likely products, AlO and AlO2,are expected to figure prominently in subsequent reactions to form Al2O3. The main reaction pathways on both surfaces invariably lead to the formation of cyclic AlO2, possibly followed by isomerization to the lower-energy linear AlO2 isomer. A reaction path leading from Al+O2directly to AlO+O was not located. However, both AlO2 isomers can dissociate to AlO+Owith no barrier beyond endothermicity. There is also no barrier for the reaction of AlO2 with AlO to form Al2O3, and this reaction is highly exothermic

    Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics

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    Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256^3 and 512^3 simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li, McKee, & Klein (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.Comment: 37 pages, 11 figures, 4 table

    Ultimate parameters of the photon collider at the ILC

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    At linear colliders, the e+e- luminosity is limited by beam-collision effects, which determine the required emittances of beams in damping rings (DRs). While in gamma-gamma collisions at the photon collider, these effects are absent, and so smaller emittances are desirable. In present damping rings designs, nominal DR parameters correspond to those required for e+e- collisions. In this note, I would like to stress once again that as soon as we plan the photon-collider mode of ILC operation, the damping-ring emittances are dictated by the photon-collider requirements--namely, they should be as small as possible. This can be achieved by adding more wigglers to the DRs; the incremental cost is easily justified by a considerable potential improvement of the gamma-gamma luminosity. No expert analysis exists as of yet, but it seems realistic to obtain a factor five increase of the gamma-gamma luminosity compared to the ``nominal'' DR design.Comment: Talk at LCWS06, Bangalore, India, March 2006, to be published in Indian Journal of Physics, 5 pp, Latex, 1 .eps figur

    Reemergence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of Korea.

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    Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993. The number of cases has tripled each year since, with more than 1,600 cases reported in 1997. All 27 cases in U.S. troops resolved uneventfully with chloroquine/primaquine therapy. Disease is localized along the western Demilitarized Zone and presents minimal risk to tourists

    All-optical switching in a two-channel waveguide with cubic-quintic nonlinearity

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    We consider dynamics of spatial beams in a dual-channel waveguide with competing cubic and quintic (CQ) nonlinearities. Gradually increasing the power in the input channel, we identify four different regimes of the pulses coupling into the cross channel, which alternate three times between full pass and full stop, thus suggesting three realizations of switching between the channels. As in the case of the Kerr (solely cubic) nonlinearity, the first two regimes are the linear one, and one dominated by the self-focusing nonlinearity, with the beam which, respectively, periodically couples between the channels, or stays in the input channel. Further increase of the power reveals two novel transmission regimes, one characterized by balance between the competing nonlinearities, which again allows full coupling between the channels, and a final regime dominated by the self-defocusing quintic nonlinearity. In the latter case, the situation resembles that known for a self-repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential, which is characterized by strong symmetry breaking; accordingly, the beam again abides in the input channel, contrary to an intuitive expectation that the self-defocusing nonlinearity would push it into the cross channel. The numerical results are qualitatively explained by a simple analytical model based on the variational approximation.Comment: Journal of Physics B (in press

    The Far-Infrared Properties of Spatially Resolved AKARI Observations

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    We present the spatially resolved observations of IRAS sources from the Japanese infrared astronomy satellite AKARI All-Sky Survey during the performance verification (PV) phase of the mission. We extracted reliable point sources matched with IRAS point source catalogue. By comparing IRAS and AKARI fluxes, we found that the flux measurements of some IRAS sources could have been over or underestimated and affected by the local background rather than the global background. We also found possible candidates for new AKARI sources and confirmed that AKARI observations resolved IRAS sources into multiple sources. All-Sky Survey observations are expected to verify the accuracies of IRAS flux measurements and to find new extragalactic point sources.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, accepted publication in PASJ AKARI special issu

    Convective Motion in a Vibrated Granular Layer

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    Experimental results are presented for a vertically shaken granular layer. In the range of accelerations explored, the layer develops a convective motion in the form of one or more rolls. The velocity of the grains near the wall has been measured. It grows linearly with the acceleration, then the growing rate slows down. A rescaling with the amplitude of the wall velocity and the height of the granular layer makes all data collapse in a single curve. This can provide insights on the mechanism driving the motion.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Early GRB Optical and Infrared Afterglow Observations with the 2-m Robotic Liverpool Telescope

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    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Il nuovo cimento (4th Workshop Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era, Rome, 18-22 October 2004

    Towards Higgs boson production in gluon fusion to NNLO in the MSSM

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    We consider the Higgs boson production in the gluon-fusion channel to next-to-next-to-leading order within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In particular, we present analytical results for the matching coefficient of the effective theory and study its influence on the total production cross section in the limit where the masses of all MSSM particles coincide. For supersymmetric masses below 500 GeV it is possible to find parameters leading to a significant enhancement of the Standard Model cross section, the KK-factors, however, change only marginally.Comment: 20 pages; v2: modification of discussion of numerical effect, version to appear in EPJC; v3: eq.(18) corrected, minor correction
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