6,126 research outputs found

    Characterization studies of Silicon Photomultipliers and crystals matrices for a novel time of flight PET detector

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    This paper describes the characterization of crystal matrices and silicon photomultiplier arrays for a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, namely the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US system. The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration aims to integrate Time-Of-Flight PET with ultrasound endoscopy in a novel multimodal device, capable to support the development of new biomarkers for prostate and pancreatic tumors. The detector consists in two parts: a PET head mounted on an ultrasound probe and an external PET plate. The challenging goal of 1 mm spatial resolution for the PET image requires a detector with small crystal size, and therefore high channel density: 4096 LYSO crystals individually readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) make up the external plate. The quality and properties of these components must be assessed before the assembly. The dark count rate, gain, breakdown voltage and correlated noise of the SiPMs are measured, while the LYSO crystals are evaluated in terms of light yield and energy resolution. In order to effectively reduce the noise in the PET image, high time resolution for the gamma detection is mandatory. The Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of all the SiPMs assembled with crystals is measured, and results show a value close to the demanding goal of 200 ps FWHM. The light output is evaluated for every channel for a preliminary detector calibration, showing an average of about 1800 pixels fired on the SiPM for a 511 keV interaction. Finally, the average energy resolution at 511 keV is about 13 %, enough for effective Compton rejection.Comment: 12 pages, 31 figure

    Research of Regional Air Transportation Development Strategy in China

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    支线航空运输作为民航运输体系中重要的组成部分,其持续、健康、快速的发展无论对区域经济的推动,民航行业的发展,振兴我国航空工业乃至构建和谐社会等各个层面都具有重大意义。 然而,与我国民航运输总体的高速发展不相称的是,支线航空的发展却一直非常缓慢,徘徊不前。本文试图通过深入的分析和研究,从行业宏观角度及航空公司的微观角度揭示我国支线航空发展存在的问题及其根源,并有针对性地提出促进支线航空发展的策略建议。 本文首先以中外业界广为接受和认同的支线航空运输市场的界定标准为基础,结合我国国情和发展的观念对我国支线航空市场作出了界定。在此基础上,结合行业生命周期理论,通过研究欧美发达航空市场的支线航空发...As an important part of civil air transportation system, regional air transportation is the key to boost the regional economy; improve the civil air transportation industry; support the Chinese aviation manufacturing industry as well as build the harmonious society. However, unlike the fast development of the whole civil air transportation industry, regional air transportation develops very slowl...学位:工商管理硕士院系专业:管理学院工商管理教育中心(MBA中心)_工商管理硕士(MBA)学号:20031503

    The laser calibration system of the HARP TOF

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    Abstract The calibration and monitoring system constructed for the HARP experiment scintillator-based time of flight system is described. It is based on a Nd-Yag laser with passive Q-switch and active/passive mode-locking, with a custom made laser light injection system based on a bundle of IR monomode optical fibers. A novel ultrafast InGaAs MSM photodiode, with 30 ps risetime, has been used for the laser pulse timing . The first results from the 2001–2002 data taking are presented, showing that drifts in timing down to about 70 ps can be traced

    A shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation for a linear collider

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    Two techniques for longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters are proposed. Beam tests have demonstrated the technical feasibility of longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters in which longitudinal sampling is performed by lateral vacuum photodiodes or by using two scintillator types with different decay times. Results concerning energy resolution and e/π separation are presente

    Intercalibration of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at start-up

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    Calibration of the relative response of the individual channels of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS detector was accomplished, before installation, with cosmic ray muons and test beams. One fourth of the calorimeter was exposed to a beam of high energy electrons and the relative calibration of the channels, the intercalibration, was found to be reproducible to a precision of about 0.3%. Additionally, data were collected with cosmic rays for the entire ECAL barrel during the commissioning phase. By comparing the intercalibration constants obtained with the electron beam data with those from the cosmic ray data, it is demonstrated that the latter provide an intercalibration precision of 1.5% over most of the barrel ECAL. The best intercalibration precision is expected to come from the analysis of events collected in situ during the LHC operation. Using data collected with both electrons and pion beams, several aspects of the intercalibration procedures based on electrons or neutral pions were investigated

    Measurement and Interpretation of Fermion-Pair Production at LEP energies above the Z Resonance

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    This paper presents DELPHI measurements and interpretations of cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries, and angular distributions, for the e+e- -> ffbar process for centre-of-mass energies above the Z resonance, from sqrt(s) ~ 130 - 207 GeV at the LEP collider. The measurements are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model and are used to study a variety of models including the S-Matrix ansatz for e+e- -> ffbar scattering and several models which include physics beyond the Standard Model: the exchange of Z' bosons, contact interactions between fermions, the exchange of gravitons in large extra dimensions and the exchange of sneutrino in R-parity violating supersymmetry.Comment: 79 pages, 16 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    A Determination of the Centre-of-Mass Energy at LEP2 using Radiative 2-fermion Events

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    Using e+e- -> mu+mu-(gamma) and e+e- -> qqbar(gamma) events radiative to the Z pole, DELPHI has determined the centre-of-mass energy, sqrt{s}, using energy and momentum constraint methods. The results are expressed as deviations from the nominal LEP centre-of-mass energy, measured using other techniques. The results are found to be compatible with the LEP Energy Working Group estimates for a combination of the 1997 to 2000 data sets.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    Study of Tau-pair Production in Photon-Photon Collisions at LEP and Limits on the Anomalous Electromagnetic Moments of the Tau Lepton

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    Tau-pair production in the process e+e- -> e+e-tau+tau- was studied using data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP2 during the years 1997 - 2000. The corresponding integrated luminosity is 650 pb^{-1}. The values of the cross-section obtained are found to be in agreement with QED predictions. Limits on the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the tau lepton are deduced.Comment: 20 pages, 9 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    Evidence for an Excess of Soft Photons in Hadronic Decays of Z^0

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    Soft photons inside hadronic jets converted in front of the DELPHI main tracker (TPC) in events of qqbar disintegrations of the Z^0 were studied in the kinematic range 0.2 < E_gamma < 1 GeV and transverse momentum with respect to the closest jet direction p_T < 80 MeV/c. A clear excess of photons in the experimental data as compared to the Monte Carlo predictions is observed. This excess (uncorrected for the photon detection efficiency) is (1.17 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.27) x 10^{-3} gamma/jet in the specified kinematic region, while the expected level of the inner hadronic bremsstrahlung (which is not included in the Monte Carlo) is (0.340 +/- 0.001 +/- 0.038) x 10^{-3} gamma/jet. The ratio of the excess to the predicted bremsstrahlung rate is then (3.4 +/- 0.2 +/- 0.8), which is similar in strength to the anomalous soft photon signal observed in fixed target experiments with hadronic beams.Comment: 37 pages, 9 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.
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