4,510 research outputs found

    A novel CMB polarization likelihood package for large angular scales built from combined WMAP and Planck LFI legacy maps

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    We present a CMB large-scale polarization dataset obtained by combining WMAP Ka, Q and V with Planck 70 GHz maps. We employ the legacy frequency maps released by the WMAP and Planck collaborations and perform our own Galactic foreground mitigation technique, which relies on Planck 353 GHz for polarized dust and on Planck 30 GHz and WMAP K for polarized synchrotron. We derive a single, optimally-noise-weighted, low-residual-foreground map and the accompanying noise covariance matrix. These are shown, through χ2\chi^2 analysis, to be robust over an ample collection of Galactic masks. We use this dataset, along with the Planck legacy Commander temperature solution, to build a pixel-based low-resolution CMB likelihood package, whose robustness we test extensively with the aid of simulations, finding excellent consistency. Using this likelihood package alone, we constrain the optical depth to reionazation τ=0.069−0.012+0.011\tau=0.069^{+0.011}_{-0.012} at 68%68\% C.L., on 54\% of the sky. Adding the Planck high-ℓ\ell temperature and polarization legacy likelihood, the Planck lensing likelihood and BAO observations we find τ=0.0714−0.0096+0.0087\tau=0.0714_{-0.0096}^{+0.0087} in a full Λ\LambdaCDM exploration. The latter bounds are slightly less constraining than those obtained employing \Planck\ HFI CMB data for large angle polarization, that only include EE correlations. Our bounds are based on a largely independent dataset that does include also TE correlations. They are generally well compatible with Planck HFI preferring slightly higher values of τ\tau. We make the low-resolution Planck and WMAP joint dataset publicly available along with the accompanying likelihood code.Comment: The WMAP+LFI likelihood module is available on \http://www.fe.infn.it/u/pagano/low_ell_datasets/wmap_lfi_legacy

    Charge density waves enhance the electronic noise of manganites

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    The transport and noise properties of Pr_{0.7}Ca_{0.3}MnO_{3} epitaxial thin films in the temperature range from room temperature to 160 K are reported. It is shown that both the broadband 1/f noise properties and the dependence of resistance on electric field are consistent with the idea of a collective electrical transport, as in the classical model of sliding charge density waves. On the other hand, the observations cannot be reconciled with standard models of charge ordering and charge melting. Methodologically, it is proposed to consider noise-spectra analysis as a unique tool for the identification of the transport mechanism in such highly correlated systems. On the basis of the results, the electrical transport is envisaged as one of the most effective ways to understand the nature of the insulating, charge-modulated ground states in manganites.Comment: 6 two-column pages, 5 figure

    Positional goods and legal orderings

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    People consume because others consume, maintained Veblen in 1899. More recently, theoretical, empirical and experimental articles have argued that people constantly compare themselves to their environments and care greatly about their relative positions. Given that competition for positions may produce social costs, we adopt a Law and Economics approach (i) to suggest legal remedies for positional competition, and (ii) to argue that, because legal relations are characterized in turn by positional characteristics, such legal remedies do not represent ‘free lunches’

    The 21 cm Signature of Shock Heated and Diffuse Cosmic String Wakes

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    The analysis of the 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes is extended in several ways. First we consider the constraints on GμG\mu from the absorption signal of shock heated wakes laid down much later than matter radiation equality. Secondly we analyze the signal of diffuse wake, that is those wakes in which there is a baryon overdensity but which have not shock heated. Finally we compare the size of these signals compared to the expected thermal noise per pixel which dominates over the background cosmic gas brightness temperature and find that the cosmic string signal will exceed the thermal noise of an individual pixel in the Square Kilometre Array for string tensions Gμ>2.5×10−8G\mu > 2.5 \times 10^{-8}.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, Appendix added, version published in JCA

    Highest Energy Cosmic Rays and results from the HiRes Experiment

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    The status of the field of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is summarized, from the point of view of the latest results of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment. HiRes results are presented, and compared with those of the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA), plus the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger experiments. The HiRes measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum, and the observation of the GZK cutoff are presented. HiRes results on composition, searches for anisotropy, measurement of the proton-air total cross section, and shapes of shower profiles are presented.Comment: 31 pages, 18 figures, submitted to Journal of Physics
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