468 research outputs found

    Review of biorthogonal coupled cluster representations for electronic excitation

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    Single reference coupled-cluster (CC) methods for electronic excitation are based on a biorthogonal representation (bCC) of the (shifted) Hamiltonian in terms of excited CC states, also referred to as correlated excited (CE) states, and an associated set of states biorthogonal to the CE states, the latter being essentially configuration interaction (CI) configurations. The bCC representation generates a non-hermitian secular matrix, the eigenvalues representing excitation energies, while the corresponding spectral intensities are to be derived from both the left and right eigenvectors. Using the perspective of the bCC representation, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the excited-state CC methods is given, extending and generalizing previous such studies. Here, the essential topics are the truncation error characteristics and the separability properties, the latter being crucial for designing size-consistent approximation schemes. Based on the general order relations for the bCC secular matrix and the (left and right) eigenvector matrices, formulas for the perturbation-theoretical (PT) order of the truncation errors (TEO) are derived for energies, transition moments, and property matrix elements of arbitrary excitation classes and truncation levels. In the analysis of the separability properties of the transition moments, the decisive role of the so-called dual ground state is revealed. Due to the use of CE states the bCC approach can be compared to so-called intermediate state representation (ISR) methods based exclusively on suitably orthonormalized CE states. As the present analysis shows, the bCC approach has decisive advantages over the conventional CI treatment, but also distinctly weaker TEO and separability properties in comparison with a full (and hermitian) ISR method

    Anticancer Gene Transfer for Cancer Gene Therapy

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    Gene therapy vectors are among the treatments currently used to treat malignant tumors. Gene therapy vectors use a specific therapeutic transgene that causes death in cancer cells. In early attempts at gene therapy, therapeutic transgenes were driven by non-specific vectors which induced toxicity to normal cells in addition to the cancer cells. Recently, novel cancer specific viral vectors have been developed that target cancer cells leaving normal cells unharmed. Here we review such cancer specific gene therapy systems currently used in the treatment of cancer and discuss the major challenges and future directions in this field

    The effect of growth on the correlation between the spinal and rib cage deformity: implications on idiopathic scoliosis pathogenesis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Numerous studies have attempted to quantify the correlation between the surface deformity and the Cobb angle without considering growth as an important factor that may influence this correlation. In our series, we noticed that in some younger referred children from the school-screening program there is a discrepancy between the thoracic scoliometer readings and the morphology of their spine. Namely there is a rib hump but no spinal curve and consequently no Cobb angle reading in radiographs, discrepancy which fades away in older children. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that in scoliotics the correlation between the rib cage deformity and this of the spine is weak in younger children and vice versa.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Eighty three girls referred on the basis of their hump reading on the scoliometer, with a mean age of 13.4 years old (range 7–18), were included in the study. The spinal deformity was assessed by measuring the thoracic Cobb angle from the postero-anterior spinal radiographs. The rib cage deformity was quantified by measuring the rib-index at the apex of the thoracic curve from the lateral spinal radiographs. The rib-index is defined as the ratio between the distance of the posterior margin of the vertebral body and the most extended point of the most projecting rib contour, divided by the distance between the posterior margin of the same vertebral body and the most protruding point of the least projecting rib contour. Statistical analysis included linear regression models with and without the effect of the variable age. We divided our sample in two subgroups, namely the younger (7–13 years old) and the older (14–18 years old) than the mean age participants. A univariate linear regression analysis was performed for each age group in order to assess the effect of age on Cobb angle and rib index correlation.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Twenty five per cent of patients with an ATI more than or equal 7 degrees had a spinal curve under 10 degrees or had a straight spine. Linear regressions between the dependent variable "Thoracic Cobb angle" with the independent variable "rib-index" without the effect of the variable "age" is not statistical significant. After sample split, the linear relationship is statistically significant in the age group 14–18 years old (p < 0.03).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Growth has a significant effect in the correlation between the thoracic and the spinal deformity in girls with idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore it should be taken into consideration when trying to assess the spinal deformity from surface measurements. The findings of the present study implicate the role of the thorax, as it shows that the rib cage deformity precedes the spinal deformity in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis.</p

    Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations at large transverse momenta in p+pp+p and Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 200 GeV

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    Results on high transverse momentum charged particle emission with respect to the reaction plane are presented for Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 200 GeV. Two- and four-particle correlations results are presented as well as a comparison of azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions to those in p+pp+p at the same energy. Elliptic anisotropy, v2v_2, is found to reach its maximum at pt3p_t \sim 3 GeV/c, then decrease slowly and remain significant up to pt7p_t\approx 7 -- 10 GeV/c. Stronger suppression is found in the back-to-back high-ptp_t particle correlations for particles emitted out-of-plane compared to those emitted in-plane. The centrality dependence of v2v_2 at intermediate ptp_t is compared to simple models based on jet quenching.Comment: 4 figures. Published version as PRL 93, 252301 (2004

    Experiences and attitudes of Dutch rheumatologists and oncologists with regard to their patients’ health-related Internet use

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    The objective of this study is to explore the experiences and attitudes of rheumatologists and oncologists with regard to their patients’ health-related Internet use. In addition, we explored how often physicians referred their patients to health-related Internet sites. We sent a questionnaire to all the rheumatologists and oncologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included questions concerning demographics, experiences with patients’ health-related Internet use, referral behavior, and attitudes to the consequences of patients’ health-related Internet use (for patients themselves, the physician-patient relationship and the health care). The response rate was 46% (N = 238). Of these respondents, 134 practiced as a rheumatologist and 104 as an oncologist. Almost all physicians encountered their patients raising information from the Internet during a consultation. They were not, however, confronted with their patients’ health-related Internet use on a daily basis. Physicians had a moderately positive attitude towards the consequences of patients’ health-related Internet use, the physician-patient relationship and the health care. Oncologists were significantly less positive than rheumatologists about the consequences of health-related Internet use. Most of the physicians had never (32%) or only sometimes (42%) referred a patient to a health-related Internet site. Most physicians (53%) found it difficult to stay up-to-date with reliable Internet sites for patients. Physicians are moderately positive about their patients’ health-related Internet use but only seldom refer them to relevant sites. Offering an up-to-date site with accredited websites for patients might help physicians refer their patients

    Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV

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    The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow (v_1), elliptic flow (v_2), and the fourth harmonic (v_4) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a Blast Wave model. Different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data. For v_2, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence is discussed. For v_4, scaling with v_2^2 and quark coalescence is discussed.Comment: 26 pages. As accepted by Phys. Rev. C. Text rearranged, figures modified, but data the same. However, in Fig. 35 the hydro calculations are corrected in this version. The data tables are available at http://www.star.bnl.gov/central/publications/ by searching for "flow" and then this pape

    Measurement of the top quark mass using the matrix element technique in dilepton final states

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    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data were collected by the D0 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7  fb−1. The matrix element technique is applied to tt¯ events in the final state containing leptons (electrons or muons) with high transverse momenta and at least two jets. The calibration of the jet energy scale determined in the lepton+jets final state of tt¯ decays is applied to jet energies. This correction provides a substantial reduction in systematic uncertainties. We obtain a top quark mass of mt=173.93±1.84  GeV

    Effective Rheology of Bubbles Moving in a Capillary Tube

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    We calculate the average volumetric flux versus pressure drop of bubbles moving in a single capillary tube with varying diameter, finding a square-root relation from mapping the flow equations onto that of a driven overdamped pendulum. The calculation is based on a derivation of the equation of motion of a bubble train from considering the capillary forces and the entropy production associated with the viscous flow. We also calculate the configurational probability of the positions of the bubbles.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur

    The Effect of Diel Temperature and Light Cycles on the Growth of Nannochloropsis oculata in a Photobioreactor Matrix

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    A matrix of photobioreactors integrated with metabolic sensors was used to examine the combined impact of light and temperature variations on the growth and physiology of the biofuel candidate microalgal species Nannochloropsis oculata. The experiments were performed with algal cultures maintained at a constant 20u C versus a 15°C to 25°C diel temperature cycle, where light intensity also followed a diel cycle with a maximum irradiance of 1920 μmol photons m-2 s-1. No differences in algal growth (Chlorophyll a) were found between the two environmental regimes; however, the metabolic processes responded differently throughout the day to the change in environmental conditions. The variable temperature treatment resulted in greater damage to photosystem II due to the combined effect of strong light and high temperature. Cellular functions responded differently to conditions before midday as opposed to the afternoon, leading to strong hysteresis in dissolved oxygen concentration, quantum yield of photosystem II and net photosynthesis. Overnight metabolism performed differently, probably as a result of the temperature impact on respiration. Our photobioreactor matrix has produced novel insights into the physiological response of Nannochloropsis oculata to simulated environmental conditions. This information can be used to predict the effectiveness of deploying Nannochloropsis oculata in similar field conditions for commercial biofuel production. © 2014 Tamburic et al
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