743 research outputs found

    Kahler Quantization of H3(CY3,R) and the Holomorphic Anomaly

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    Studying the quadratic field theory on seven dimensional spacetime constructed by a direct product of Calabi-Yau three-fold by a real time axis, with phase space being the third cohomology of the Calabi-Yau three-fold, the generators of translation along moduli directions of Calabi-Yau three-fold are constructed. The algebra of these generators is derived which take a simple form in canonical coordinates. Applying the Dirac method of quantization of second class constraint systems, we show that the Schr\"{o}dinger equations corresponding to these generators are equivalent to the holomorphic anomaly equations if one defines the action functional of the quadratic field theory with a proper factor one-half.Comment: 10 pages, few typos corrected, to appear in JHE

    New Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations - On the Anomalous Gyromagnetic Ratio

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    I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result of the theory, is that, two of the equation exhibits an asymmetry in their positive and negative energy solutions the first suggestion of which is clear that a solution to the problem as to why the Electron and Muon - despite their acute similarities - exhibit an asymmetry in their mass is possible. The Mourn is often thought as an Electron in a higher energy state. Another of the consequences of three equations emanating from the asymmetric serendipity of the energy solutions of two of these equations, is that, an explanation as to why Leptons exhibit a three stage mass hierarchy is possible.Comment: 8 pages, errors corrected, final form of the paper and no further changes to be made. Accepted in the Foundations of Physics Journa

    A theory of evolving natural constants embracing Einstein's theory of general relativity and Dirac's large number hypothesis

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    Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmic combined conservation laws that work to cosmologically long time. We thus modify or generalize Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant GG to a theory for varying GG, which can be applied to cosmology without inconsistency, where a tensor arising from the variation of G takes the place of the cosmological constant term. We then develop on this basis a systematic theory of evolving natural constants me,mp,e,‚ĄŹ,kBm_{e},m_{p},e,\hslash ,k_{B} by finding out their cosmic combined counterparts involving factors of appropriate powers of GG that remain truly constant to cosmologically long time. As GG varies so little in recent centuries, so we take these natural constants to be constant.Comment: 29 pages, revtex

    Unambiguous quantization from the maximum classical correspondence that is self-consistent: the slightly stronger canonical commutation rule Dirac missed

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    Dirac's identification of the quantum analog of the Poisson bracket with the commutator is reviewed, as is the threat of self-inconsistent overdetermination of the quantization of classical dynamical variables which drove him to restrict the assumption of correspondence between quantum and classical Poisson brackets to embrace only the Cartesian components of the phase space vector. Dirac's canonical commutation rule fails to determine the order of noncommuting factors within quantized classical dynamical variables, but does imply the quantum/classical correspondence of Poisson brackets between any linear function of phase space and the sum of an arbitrary function of only configuration space with one of only momentum space. Since every linear function of phase space is itself such a sum, it is worth checking whether the assumption of quantum/classical correspondence of Poisson brackets for all such sums is still self-consistent. Not only is that so, but this slightly stronger canonical commutation rule also unambiguously determines the order of noncommuting factors within quantized dynamical variables in accord with the 1925 Born-Jordan quantization surmise, thus replicating the results of the Hamiltonian path integral, a fact first realized by E. H. Kerner. Born-Jordan quantization validates the generalized Ehrenfest theorem, but has no inverse, which disallows the disturbing features of the poorly physically motivated invertible Weyl quantization, i.e., its unique deterministic classical "shadow world" which can manifest negative densities in phase space.Comment: 12 pages, Final publication in Foundations of Physics; available online at http://www.springerlink.com/content/k827666834140322

    Scale transformation, modified gravity, and Brans-Dicke theory

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    A model of Einstein-Hilbert action subject to the scale transformation is studied. By introducing a dilaton field as a means of scale transformation a new action is obtained whose Einstein field equations are consistent with traceless matter with non-vanishing modified terms together with dynamical cosmological and gravitational coupling terms. The obtained modified Einstein equations are neither those in f(R)f(R) metric formalism nor the ones in f(R)f({\cal R}) Palatini formalism, whereas the modified source terms are {\it formally} equivalent to those of f(R)=12R2f({\cal R})=\frac{1}{2}{\cal R}^2 gravity in Palatini formalism. The correspondence between the present model, the modified gravity theory, and Brans-Dicke theory with ŌČ=‚ąí32\omega=-\frac{3}{2} is explicitly shown, provided the dilaton field is condensated to its vacuum state.Comment: 14 pages, accepted for publication in IJT

    Dark energy, antimatter gravity and geometry of the Universe

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    This article is based on two hypotheses. The first one is the existence of the gravitational repulsion between particles and antiparticles. Consequently, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the quantum vacuum may be considered as gravitational dipoles. The second hypothesis is that the Universe has geometry of a four-dimensional hyper-spherical shell with thickness equal to the Compton wavelength of a pion, which is a simple generalization of the usual geometry of a 3-hypersphere. It is striking that these two hypotheses lead to a simple relation for the gravitational mass density of the vacuum, which is in very good agreement with the observed dark energy density

    Quantum wave equation of photon

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    In this paper, we give the quantum wave equations of single photon when it is in the free or medium space. With these equations, we can study light interference and diffraction with quantum approach. Otherwise, they can be applied in quantum optics and photonic crystal.Comment: 8 pages, 0 figure

    A few provoking relations between dark energy, dark matter and pions

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    I present three relations, striking in their simplicity and fundamental appearance. The first one connects the Compton wavelength of a pion and the dark energy density of the Universe; the second one connects Compton wavelength of a pion and the mass distribution of non-baryonic dark matter in a Galaxy; the third one relates mass of a pion to fundamental physical constants and cosmological parameters. All these relations are in excellent numerical agreement with observations

    Metrical Quantization

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    Canonical quantization may be approached from several different starting points. The usual approaches involve promotion of c-numbers to q-numbers, or path integral constructs, each of which generally succeeds only in Cartesian coordinates. All quantization schemes that lead to Hilbert space vectors and Weyl operators---even those that eschew Cartesian coordinates---implicitly contain a metric on a flat phase space. This feature is demonstrated by studying the classical and quantum ``aggregations'', namely, the set of all facts and properties resident in all classical and quantum theories, respectively. Metrical quantization is an approach that elevates the flat phase space metric inherent in any canonical quantization to the level of a postulate. Far from being an unwanted structure, the flat phase space metric carries essential physical information. It is shown how the metric, when employed within a continuous-time regularization scheme, gives rise to an unambiguous quantization procedure that automatically leads to a canonical coherent state representation. Although attention in this paper is confined to canonical quantization we note that alternative, nonflat metrics may also be used, and they generally give rise to qualitatively different, noncanonical quantization schemes.Comment: 13 pages, LaTeX, no figures, to appear in Born X Proceeding

    Quantum Superposition Principle and Geometry

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    If one takes seriously the postulate of quantum mechanics in which physical states are rays in the standard Hilbert space of the theory, one is naturally lead to a geometric formulation of the theory. Within this formulation of quantum mechanics, the resulting description is very elegant from the geometrical viewpoint, since it allows to cast the main postulates of the theory in terms of two geometric structures, namely a symplectic structure and a Riemannian metric. However, the usual superposition principle of quantum mechanics is not naturally incorporated, since the quantum state space is non-linear. In this note we offer some steps to incorporate the superposition principle within the geometric description. In this respect, we argue that it is necessary to make the distinction between a 'projective superposition principle' and a 'decomposition principle' that extend the standard superposition principle. We illustrate our proposal with two very well known examples, namely the spin 1/2 system and the two slit experiment, where the distinction is clear from the physical perspective. We show that the two principles have also a different mathematical origin within the geometrical formulation of the theory.Comment: 10 pages, no figures. References added. V3 discussion expanded and new results added, 14 pages. Dedicated to Michael P. Ryan on the occasion of his sixtieth bithda
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