4,685 research outputs found

    Signal Significance in Particle Physics

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    The concept of the "statistical significance" of an observation, and how it is used in particle physics experiments is reviewed. More properly known as a "p-value," the statistical foundations for this concept are reviewed from a freqentist perspective. The discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and a more recent analysis of data recorded at Fermilab are used to illustrate practical applications of these concepts

    Is the New Resonance Spin 0 or 2? Taking a Step Forward in the Higgs Boson Discovery

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    The observation of a new boson of mass \sim 125\gev at the CERN LHC may finally have revealed the existence of a Higgs boson. Now we have the opportunity to scrutinize its properties, determining its quantum numbers and couplings to the standard model particles, in order to confirm or not its discovery. We show that by the end of the 8 TeV run, combining the entire data sets of ATLAS and CMS, it will be possible to discriminate between the following discovery alternatives: a scalar JP=0+J^P=0^+ or a tensor JP=2+J^P=2^+ particle with minimal couplings to photons, at a 5σ5\sigma statistical confidence level at least, using only diphotons events. Our results are based on the calculation of a center-edge asymmetry measure of the reconstructed {\it sPlot} scattering polar angle of the diphotons. The results based on asymmetries are shown to be rather robust against systematic uncertainties with comparable discrimination power to a log likelihood ratio statistic.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 1 table. References added, minor typos correcte

    Top Quark Physics at the Tevatron

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    We review the field of top-quark physics with an emphasis on experimental techniques. The role of the top quark in the Standard Model of particle physics is summarized and the basic phenomenology of top-quark production and decay is introduced. We discuss how contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model could affect top-quark properties or event samples. The many measurements made at the Fermilab Tevatron, which test the Standard Model predictions or probe for direct evidence of new physics using the top-quark event samples, are reviewed here.Comment: 50 pages, 17 figures, 2 tables; version accepted by Review of Modern Physic

    Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model

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    Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasion of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value PcP_c above which all the nine types of strain coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of the three topologically identical states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model.Comment: 4 page

    A data-driven method of pile-up correction for the substructure of massive jets

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    We describe a method to measure and subtract the incoherent component of energy flow arising from multiple interactions from jet shape/substructure observables of ultra-massive jets. The amount subtracted is a function of the jet shape variable of interest and not a universal property. Such a correction is expected to significantly reduce any bias in the corresponding distributions generated by the presence of multiple interactions, and to improve measurement resolution. Since in our method the correction is obtained from the data, it is not subject to uncertainties coming from the use of theoretical calculations and/or Monte Carlo event generators. We derive our correction method for the jet mass, angularity and planar flow. We find these corrections to be in good agreement with data on massive jets observed by the CDF collaboration. Finally, we comment on the linkage with the concept of jet area and jet mass area.Comment: 7 pages and 3 figures, minor correction

    Defensive alliances in spatial models of cyclical population interactions

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    As a generalization of the 3-strategy Rock-Scissors-Paper game dynamics in space, cyclical interaction models of six mutating species are studied on a square lattice, in which each species is supposed to have two dominant, two subordinated and a neutral interacting partner. Depending on their interaction topologies, these systems can be classified into four (isomorphic) groups exhibiting significantly different behaviors as a function of mutation rate. On three out of four cases three (or four) species form defensive alliances which maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Varying the mutation rate this mechanism results in an ordering phenomenon analogous to that of magnetic Ising model.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Evolutionary instability of Zero Determinant strategies demonstrates that winning isn't everything

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    Zero Determinant (ZD) strategies are a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies that are able to unilaterally set the expected payoff of an opponent in iterated plays of the Prisoner's Dilemma irrespective of the opponent's strategy, or else to set the ratio between a ZD player's and their opponent's expected payoff. Here we show that while ZD strategies are weakly dominant, they are not evolutionarily stable and will instead evolve into less coercive strategies. We show that ZD strategies with an informational advantage over other players that allows them to recognize other ZD strategies can be evolutionarily stable (and able to exploit other players). However, such an advantage is bound to be short-lived as opposing strategies evolve to counteract the recognition.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures. Change in title (again!) to comply with Nature Communications requirements. To appear in Nature Communication

    Spatial heterogeneity promotes coexistence of rock-paper-scissor metacommunities

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    The rock-paper-scissor game -- which is characterized by three strategies R,P,S, satisfying the non-transitive relations S excludes P, P excludes R, and R excludes S -- serves as a simple prototype for studying more complex non-transitive systems. For well-mixed systems where interactions result in fitness reductions of the losers exceeding fitness gains of the winners, classical theory predicts that two strategies go extinct. The effects of spatial heterogeneity and dispersal rates on this outcome are analyzed using a general framework for evolutionary games in patchy landscapes. The analysis reveals that coexistence is determined by the rates at which dominant strategies invade a landscape occupied by the subordinate strategy (e.g. rock invades a landscape occupied by scissors) and the rates at which subordinate strategies get excluded in a landscape occupied by the dominant strategy (e.g. scissor gets excluded in a landscape occupied by rock). These invasion and exclusion rates correspond to eigenvalues of the linearized dynamics near single strategy equilibria. Coexistence occurs when the product of the invasion rates exceeds the product of the exclusion rates. Provided there is sufficient spatial variation in payoffs, the analysis identifies a critical dispersal rate dd^* required for regional persistence. For dispersal rates below dd^*, the product of the invasion rates exceed the product of the exclusion rates and the rock-paper-scissor metacommunities persist regionally despite being extinction prone locally. For dispersal rates above dd^*, the product of the exclusion rates exceed the product of the invasion rates and the strategies are extinction prone. These results highlight the delicate interplay between spatial heterogeneity and dispersal in mediating long-term outcomes for evolutionary games.Comment: 31pages, 5 figure
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