9,202 research outputs found

    Low-Luminosity AGN as analogues of Galactic Black Holes in the low/hard state: Evidence from X-ray timing of NGC 4258

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    We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of 3.9+/-0.1 * 10^7 solar masses. We constrain the PSD break timescale to be greater than 4.5 d at >90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to those of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters; 6 pages; 3 figure

    The Energy-dependent X-ray Timing Characteristics of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Mkn 766

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    We present the energy-dependent power spectral density (PSD) and cross-spectral properties of Mkn 766, obtained from combining data obtained during an XMM-Newton observation spanning six revolutions in 2005 with data obtained from an XMM-Newton long-look in 2001. The PSD shapes and rms-flux relations are found to be consistent between the 2001 and 2005 observations, suggesting the 2005 observation is simply a low-flux extension of the 2001 observation and permitting us to combine the two data sets. The resulting PSD has the highest temporal frequency resolution for any AGN PSD measured to date. Applying a broken power-law model yields break frequencies which increase in temporal frequency with photon energy. Obtaining a good fit when assuming energy-independent break frequencies requires the presence of a Lorentzian at 4.6+/-0.4 * 10^-4 Hz whose strength increases with photon energy, a behavior seen in black hole X-ray binaries. The cross-spectral properties are measured; temporal frequency-dependent soft-to-hard time lags are detected in this object for the first time. Cross-spectral results are consistent with those for other accreting black hole systems. The results are discussed in the context of several variability models, including those based on inwardly-propagating viscosity variations in the accretion disk.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. 18 pages, 9 figures. Uses emulateapj5.st

    X-ray vs. Optical Variations in the Seyfert 1 Nucleus NGC 3516: A Puzzling Disconnectedness

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    We present optical broadband (B and R) observations of the Seyfert 1 nucleus NGC 3516, obtained at Wise Observatory from March 1997 to March 2002, contemporaneously with X-ray 2-10 keV measurements with RXTE. With these data we increase the temporal baseline of this dataset to 5 years, more than triple to the coverage we have previously presented for this object. Analysis of the new data does not confirm the 100-day lag of X-ray behind optical variations, tentatively reported in our previous work. Indeed, excluding the first year's data, which drive the previous result, there is no significant correlation at any lag between the X-ray and optical bands. We also find no correlation at any lag between optical flux and various X-ray hardness ratios. We conclude that the close relation observed between the bands during the first year of our program was either a fluke, or perhaps the result of the exceptionally bright state of NGC 3516 in 1997, to which it has yet to return. Reviewing the results of published joint X-ray and UV/optical Seyfert monitoring programs, we speculate that there are at least two components or mechanisms contributing to the X-ray continuum emission up to 10 keV: a soft component that is correlated with UV/optical variations on timescales >1 day, and whose presence can be detected when the source is observed at low enough energies (about 1 keV), is unabsorbed, or is in a sufficiently bright phase; and a hard component whose variations are uncorrelated with the UV/optical.Comment: 9 pages, AJ, in pres

    Evidence for a Truncated Accretion Disc in the Low Luminosity Seyfert Galaxy, NGC 7213?

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    We present the broad-band 0.6-150 keV Suzaku and Swift BAT spectra of the low luminosity Seyfert galaxy, NGC 7213. The time-averaged continuum emission is well fitted by a single powerlaw of photon index Gamma = 1.75 and from consideration of the Fermi flux limit we constrain the high energy cutoff to be 350 keV < E < 25 MeV. Line emission from both near-neutral iron K_alpha at 6.39 keV and highly ionised iron, from Fe_(xxv) and Fe_(xxvi), is strongly detected in the Suzaku spectrum, further confirming the results of previous observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We find the centroid energies for the Fe_(xxv) and Fe_(xxvi) emission to be 6.60 keV and 6.95 keV respectively, with the latter appearing to be resolved in the Suzaku spectrum. We show that the Fe_(xxv) and Fe_(xxvi) emission can result from a highly photo-ionised plasma of column density N_(H) ~ 3 x 10^(23) cm^(-2). A Compton reflection component, e.g., originating from an optically-thick accretion disc or a Compton-thick torus, appears either very weak or absent in this AGN, subtending < 1 sr to the X-ray source, consistent with previous findings. Indeed the absence of either neutral or ionised Compton reflection coupled with the lack of any relativistic Fe K signatures in the spectrum suggests that an inner, optically-thick accretion disc is absent in this source. Instead, the accretion disc could be truncated with the inner regions perhaps replaced by a Compton-thin Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flow. Thus, the Fe_(xxv) and Fe_(xxvi) emission could both originate in ionised material perhaps at the transition region between the hot, inner flow and the cold, truncated accretion disc on the order of 10^(3) - 10^(4) gravitational radii from the black hole. The origin for the unresolved neutral Fe K_alpha emission is then likely to be further out, perhaps originating in the optical BLR or a Compton-thin pc-scale torus.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication by MNRA

    Collective behavior of stock price movements in an emerging market

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    To investigate the universality of the structure of interactions in different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price fluctuations in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. We find that this emerging market exhibits strong correlations in the movement of stock prices compared to developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This is shown to be due to the dominant influence of a common market mode on the stock prices. By comparison, interactions between related stocks, e.g., those belonging to the same business sector, are much weaker. This lack of distinct sector identity in emerging markets is explicitly shown by reconstructing the network of mutually interacting stocks. Spectral analysis of C for NSE reveals that, the few largest eigenvalues deviate from the bulk of the spectrum predicted by random matrix theory, but they are far fewer in number compared to, e.g., NYSE. We show this to be due to the relative weakness of intra-sector interactions between stocks, compared to the market mode, by modeling stock price dynamics with a two-factor model. Our results suggest that the emergence of an internal structure comprising multiple groups of strongly coupled components is a signature of market development.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figure

    Portfolio Optimization and the Random Magnet Problem

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    Diversification of an investment into independently fluctuating assets reduces its risk. In reality, movement of assets are are mutually correlated and therefore knowledge of cross--correlations among asset price movements are of great importance. Our results support the possibility that the problem of finding an investment in stocks which exposes invested funds to a minimum level of risk is analogous to the problem of finding the magnetization of a random magnet. The interactions for this ``random magnet problem'' are given by the cross-correlation matrix {\bf \sf C} of stock returns. We find that random matrix theory allows us to make an estimate for {\bf \sf C} which outperforms the standard estimate in terms of constructing an investment which carries a minimum level of risk.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures, revte

    Optimal Investment in the Development of Oil and Gas Field

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    Let an oil and gas field consists of clusters in each of which an investor can launch at most one project. During the implementation of a particular project, all characteristics are known, including annual production volumes, necessary investment volumes, and profit. The total amount of investments that the investor spends on developing the field during the entire planning period we know. It is required to determine which projects to implement in each cluster so that, within the total amount of investments, the profit for the entire planning period is maximum. The problem under consideration is NP-hard. However, it is solved by dynamic programming with pseudopolynomial time complexity. Nevertheless, in practice, there are additional constraints that do not allow solving the problem with acceptable accuracy at a reasonable time. Such restrictions, in particular, are annual production volumes. In this paper, we considered only the upper constraints that are dictated by the pipeline capacity. For the investment optimization problem with such additional restrictions, we obtain qualitative results, propose an approximate algorithm, and investigate its properties. Based on the results of a numerical experiment, we conclude that the developed algorithm builds a solution close (in terms of the objective function) to the optimal one
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