63,367 research outputs found

    Monte Carlo Predictions of Far-Infrared Emission from Spiral Galaxies

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    We present simulations of Far Infrared (FIR) emission by dust in spiral galaxies, based on the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code of Bianchi, Ferrara & Giovanardi (1996). The radiative transfer is carried out at several wavelength in the Ultraviolet, optical and Near Infrared, to cover the range of the stellar Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). Together with the images of the galactic model, a map of the energy absorbed by dust is produced. Using Galactic dust properties, the spatial distribution of dust temperature is derived under the assumption of thermal equilibrium. A correction is applied for non-equilibrium emission in the Mid Infrared. Images of dust emission can then be produced at any wavelength in the FIR. We show the application of the model to the spiral galaxy NGC 6946. The observed stellar SED is used as input and models are produced for different star-dust geometries. It is found that only optically thick dust disks can reproduce the observed amount of FIR radiation. However, it is not possible to reproduce the large FIR scalelength suggested by recent observation of spirals at 200 um, even when the scalelength of the dust disk is larger than that for stars. Optically thin models have ratios of optical/FIR scalelengths closer to the 200um observations, but with smaller absolute scalelengths than optically thick cases. The modelled temperature distributions are compatible with observations of the Galaxy and other spirals. We finally discuss the approximations of the model and the impact of a clumpy stellar and dust structure on the FIR simulations.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures, accepted by A&

    Rotating gravity currents: small-scale and large-scale laboratory experiments and a geostrophic model

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    Laboratory experiments simulating gravity-driven coastal surface currents produced by estuarine fresh-water discharges into the ocean are discussed. The currents are generated inside a rotating tank filled with salt water by the continuous release of buoyant fresh water from a small source at the fluid surface. The height, the width and the length of the currents are studied as a function of the background rotation rate, the volumetric discharge rate and the density difference at the source. Two complementary experimental data sets are discussed and compared with each other. One set of experiments was carried out in a tank of diameter 1 m on a small-scale rotating turntable. The second set of experiments was conducted at the large-scale Coriolis Facility (LEGI, Grenoble) which has a tank of diameter 13 m. A simple geostrophic model predicting the current height, width and propagation velocity is developed. The experiments and the model are compared with each other in terms of a set of non-dimensional parameters identified in the theoretical analysis of the problem. These parameters enable the corresponding data of the large-scale and the small-scale experiments to be collapsed onto a single line. Good agreement between the model and the experiments is found

    Semi-leptonic decays heavy-light to heavy light

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    We present results for the QCD matrix elements involved in semi-leptonic decays of B-mesons into pseudo scalar heavy light states. The application of NRQCD heavy quarks allows for quark masses around the physical b-quark. We investigate the dependence of the form factors on the external momenta and looked at the mass dependence at zero recoil. For the first time, results for radially excited decay products are presented.Comment: 3 pages LaTeX, 5 figures, Talk given at LATTICE99(Heavy Quarks), June 29th to July 3rd, 1999, Pisa, Ital

    Shifts in hexapod diversification and what Haldane could have said

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    Data on species richness and taxon age are assembled for the extant hexapod orders (insects and their six-legged relatives). Coupled with estimates of phylogenetic relatedness, and simple statistical null models, these data are used to locate where, on the hexapod tree, significant changes in the rate of cladogenesis (speciation-minus-extinction rate) have occurred. Significant differences are found between many successive pairs of sister taxa near the base of the hexapod tree, all of which are attributable to a shift in diversification rate after the origin of the Neoptera (insects with wing flexion) and before the origin of the Holometabola (insects with complete metamorphosis). No other shifts are identifiable amongst supraordinal taxa. Whilst the Coleoptera have probably diversified faster than either of their putative sister lineages, they do not stand out relative to other closely related clades. These results suggest that any Creator had a fondness for a much more inclusive clade than the Coleoptera, definitely as large as the Eumetabola (Holometabola plus bugs and their relatives), and possibly as large as the entire Neoptera. Simultaneous, hence probable causative events are discussed, of which the origin of wing flexion has been the focus of much attention

    Quantum Determinism from Quantum General Covariance

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    The requirement of general covariance of quantum field theory (QFT) naturally leads to quantization based on the manifestly covariant De Donder-Weyl formalism. To recover the standard noncovariant formalism without violating covariance, fields need to depend on time in a specific deterministic manner. This deterministic evolution of quantum fields is recognized as a covariant version of the Bohmian hidden-variable interpretation of QFT.Comment: 6 pages, revised, new references, Honorable Mention of the Gravity Research Foundation 2006 Essay Competition, version to appear in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    Relative distributions of W's and Z's at low transverse momenta

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    Despite large uncertainties in the W±W^\pm and Z0Z^0 transverse momentum (qTq_T) distributions for q_T\lsim 10 GeV, the ratio of the distributions varys little. The uncertainty in the ratio of WW to ZZ qTq_T distributions is on the order of a few percent, independent of the details of the nonperturbative parameterization.Comment: 13 pages in revtex, 5 postscript figures available upon request, UIOWA-94-0