2,217 research outputs found

    Inequalities for means of chords, with application to isoperimetric problems

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    We consider a pair of isoperimetric problems arising in physics. The first concerns a Schr\"odinger operator in L2(R2)L^2(\mathbb{R}^2) with an attractive interaction supported on a closed curve Γ\Gamma, formally given by Δαδ(xΓ)-\Delta-\alpha \delta(x-\Gamma); we ask which curve of a given length maximizes the ground state energy. In the second problem we have a loop-shaped thread Γ\Gamma in R3\mathbb{R}^3, homogeneously charged but not conducting, and we ask about the (renormalized) potential-energy minimizer. Both problems reduce to purely geometric questions about inequalities for mean values of chords of Γ\Gamma. We prove an isoperimetric theorem for pp-means of chords of curves when p2p \leq 2, which implies in particular that the global extrema for the physical problems are always attained when Γ\Gamma is a circle. The article finishes with a discussion of the pp--means of chords when p>2p > 2.Comment: LaTeX2e, 11 page

    An isoperimetric problem for point interactions

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    We consider Hamiltonian with NN point interactions in Rd,d=2,3,\R^d, d=2,3, all with the same coupling constant, placed at vertices of an equilateral polygon \PP_N. It is shown that the ground state energy is locally maximized by a regular polygon. The question whether the maximum is global is reduced to an interesting geometric problem.Comment: LaTeX 2e, 10 page

    Scattering by local deformations of a straight leaky wire

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    We consider a model of a leaky quantum wire with the Hamiltonian Δαδ(xΓ)-\Delta -\alpha \delta(x-\Gamma) in L2(R2)L^2(\R^2), where Γ\Gamma is a compact deformation of a straight line. The existence of wave operators is proven and the S-matrix is found for the negative part of the spectrum. Moreover, we conjecture that the scattering at negative energies becomes asymptotically purely one-dimensional, being determined by the local geometry in the leading order, if Γ\Gamma is a smooth curve and α\alpha \to\infty.Comment: Latex2e, 15 page

    Schroedinger operators with singular interactions: a model of tunneling resonances

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    We discuss a generalized Schr\"odinger operator in L2(Rd),d=2,3L^2(\mathbb{R}^d), d=2,3, with an attractive singular interaction supported by a (d1)(d-1)-dimensional hyperplane and a finite family of points. It can be regarded as a model of a leaky quantum wire and a family of quantum dots if d=2d=2, or surface waves in presence of a finite number of impurities if d=3d=3. We analyze the discrete spectrum, and furthermore, we show that the resonance problem in this setting can be explicitly solved; by Birman-Schwinger method it is cast into a form similar to the Friedrichs model.Comment: LaTeX2e, 34 page

    Resonances from perturbations of quantum graphs with rationally related edges

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    We discuss quantum graphs consisting of a compact part and semiinfinite leads. Such a system may have embedded eigenvalues if some edge lengths in the compact part are rationally related. If such a relation is perturbed these eigenvalues may turn into resonances; we analyze this effect both generally and in simple examples.Comment: LaTeX source file with 10 pdf figures, 24 pages; a replaced version with minor improvements, to appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Theo

    Bound states in point-interaction star-graphs

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    We discuss the discrete spectrum of the Hamiltonian describing a two-dimensional quantum particle interacting with an infinite family of point interactions. We suppose that the latter are arranged into a star-shaped graph with N arms and a fixed spacing between the interaction sites. We prove that the essential spectrum of this system is the same as that of the infinite straight "polymer", but in addition there are isolated eigenvalues unless N=2 and the graph is a straight line. We also show that the system has many strongly bound states if at least one of the angles between the star arms is small enough. Examples of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are computed numerically.Comment: 17 pages, LaTeX 2e with 9 eps figure

    A lower bound to the spectral threshold in curved tubes

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    We consider the Laplacian in curved tubes of arbitrary cross-section rotating together with the Frenet frame along curves in Euclidean spaces of arbitrary dimension, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions on the cylindrical surface and Neumann conditions at the ends of the tube. We prove that the spectral threshold of the Laplacian is estimated from below by the lowest eigenvalue of the Dirichlet Laplacian in a torus determined by the geometry of the tube.Comment: LaTeX, 13 pages; to appear in R. Soc. Lond. Proc. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sc

    An isoperimetric problem for leaky loops and related mean-chord inequalities

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    We consider a class of Hamiltonians in L2(R2)L^2(\R^2) with attractive interaction supported by piecewise C2C^2 smooth loops Γ\Gamma of a fixed length LL, formally given by Δαδ(xΓ)-\Delta-\alpha\delta(x-\Gamma) with α>0\alpha>0. It is shown that the ground state of this operator is locally maximized by a circular Γ\Gamma. We also conjecture that this property holds globally and show that the problem is related to an interesting family of geometric inequalities concerning mean values of chords of Γ\Gamma.Comment: LaTeX, 16 page

    Quantum waveguides with a lateral semitransparent barrier: spectral and scattering properties

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    We consider a quantum particle in a waveguide which consists of an infinite straight Dirichlet strip divided by a thin semitransparent barrier on a line parallel to the walls which is modeled by a δ\delta potential. We show that if the coupling strength of the latter is modified locally, i.e. it reaches the same asymptotic value in both directions along the line, there is always a bound state below the bottom of the essential spectrum provided the effective coupling function is attractive in the mean. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, as well as the scattering matrix for energies above the threshold, are found numerically by the mode-matching technique. In particular, we discuss the rate at which the ground-state energy emerges from the continuum and properties of the nodal lines. Finally, we investigate a system with a modified geometry: an infinite cylindrical surface threaded by a homogeneous magnetic field parallel to the cylinder axis. The motion on the cylinder is again constrained by a semitransparent barrier imposed on a ``seam'' parallel to the axis.Comment: a LaTeX source file with 12 figures (11 of them eps); to appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. Figures 3, 5, 8, 9, 11 are given at 300 dpi; higher resolution originals are available from the author

    Non-Weyl asymptotics for quantum graphs with general coupling conditions

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    Inspired by a recent result of Davies and Pushnitski, we study resonance asymptotics of quantum graphs with general coupling conditions at the vertices. We derive a criterion for the asymptotics to be of a non-Weyl character. We show that for balanced vertices with permutation-invariant couplings the asymptotics is non-Weyl only in case of Kirchhoff or anti-Kirchhoff conditions, while for graphs without permutation numerous examples of non-Weyl behaviour can be constructed. Furthermore, we present an insight helping to understand what makes the Kirchhoff/anti-Kirchhoff coupling particular from the resonance point of view. Finally, we demonstrate a generalization to quantum graphs with nonequal edge weights.Comment: minor changes, to appear in Pierre Duclos memorial issue of J. Phys. A: Math. Theo