39 research outputs found

    Impact of new results of the neutron capture cross section measurements for odd gadolinium isotopes on thermal-spectrum systems

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    Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are frequently equipped with fuel pins in which UO2 is mixed with Gd2O3. Gd odd isotopes have extremely high neutron capture cross sections at very low energies and are currently used as burnable poisons. For this reason, ENEA put forward a research proposal for an improvement of the Gd nuclear data accuracy by means of new experiments to be done in the framework of the n TOF Collaboration. In 2016, new measurements were performed at the CERN, and subsequently ENEA in collaboration with IRSN, started to reevaluate the neutron capture cross sections (XSs) of Gd odd isotopes. This paper presents the results of Monte Carlo simulations performed with the new measured data to estimate their impact on the criticality of a thermal-spectrum benchmark for which the value of keff is known. The outcomes demonstrate that the new data can produce a keff which is closer to the experimental one than that obtained using the currently available Gd evaluations

    A proton-recoil track imaging system for fast neutrons: the RIPTIDE detector

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    Fast neutron detection is often based on the neutron-proton elastic scattering reaction: the ionization caused by recoil protons in a hydrogenous material constitutes the basic information for the design and development of a class of neutron detectors. Although experimental techniques have continuously improved, proton-recoil track imaging remains still at the frontier of n-detection systems, due to the high photon sensitivity required. Several state-of-the-art approaches for neutron tracking by using n-p single and double scattering - referred to as Recoil Proton Track Imaging (RPTI) - can be found in the literature. So far, they have showed limits in terms of detection efficiency, complexity, cost, and implementation. In order to address some of these deficiencies, we have proposed RIPTIDE a novel recoil-proton track imaging detector in which the light output produced by a fast scintillator is used to perform a complete reconstruction in space and time of the interaction events. The proposed idea is viable thanks to the dramatic advances in low noise and single photon counting achieved in the last decade by new scientific CMOS cameras as well as pixel sensors, like Timepix or MIMOSIS. In this contribution, we report the advances on the RIPTIDE concept: Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations, light collection tests as well as state-of-the-art approach to image readout, processing and fast analysis.Comment: proceeding of the 23rd International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, IWoRID 2022, 26-30 June 2022, Riva del Garda (TN), Ital

    A detector system for 'absolute' measurements of fission cross sections at n_TOF in the energy range below 200 MeV

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    A new measurement of the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The experiment focused on neutron energies from 20 MeV to several hundred MeV, and was normalized to neutron scattering on hydrogen. This is a measurement first of its kind at this facility, in an energy range that was until now not often explored, so the detector development phase was crucial for its success. Two detectors are presented, a parallel plate fission chamber (PPFC) and a recoil proton telescope (RPT), both dedicated to perform measurements in the incident neutron energy range from 30 MeV to 200 MeV. The experiment was designed to minimize statistical uncertainties in the allocated run time. Several efforts were made to ensure that the systematic effects were understood and under control. The results show that the detectors are suited for measurements at n_TOF above 30 MeV, and indicate the path for possible future lines of development.Comment: Added acknowledgement to Euratom fundin

    Recoil Proton Telescopes and Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters for the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section measurement relative to H(n,n)H between 10 and 450 MeV neutron energy

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    With the aim of measuring the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section at the n\_TOF facility at CERN over a wide neutron energy range, a detection system consisting of two fission detectors and three detectors for neutron flux determination was realized. The neutron flux detectors are Recoil Proton Telescopes (RPT), based on scintillators and solid state detectors, conceived to detect recoil protons from the neutron-proton elastic scattering reaction. This system, along with a fission chamber and an array of parallel plate avalanche counters for fission event detection, was installed for the measurement at the n\_TOF facility in 2018, at CERN. An overview of the performances of two RPTs - especially developed for this measurement - and of the parallel plate avalanche counters are described in this article. In particular, the characterization in terms of detection efficiency by Monte Carlo simulations and response to neutron beam, the study of the background, dead time correction and characterization of the samples, are reported. The results of the present investigation show that the performances of these detectors are suitable for accurate measurements of fission reaction cross sections in the range from 10 to 450~MeV

    Pushing the high count rate limits of scintillation detectors for challenging neutron-capture experiments

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    One of the critical aspects for the accurate determination of neutron capture cross sections when combining time-of-flight and total energy detector techniques is the characterization and control of systematic uncertainties associated to the measuring devices. In this work we explore the most conspicuous effects associated to harsh count rate conditions: dead-time and pile-up effects. Both effects, when not properly treated, can lead to large systematic uncertainties and bias in the determination of neutron cross sections. In the majority of neutron capture measurements carried out at the CERN n\_TOF facility, the detectors of choice are the C6_{6}D6_{6} liquid-based either in form of large-volume cells or recently commissioned sTED detector array, consisting of much smaller-volume modules. To account for the aforementioned effects, we introduce a Monte Carlo model for these detectors mimicking harsh count rate conditions similar to those happening at the CERN n\_TOF 20~m fligth path vertical measuring station. The model parameters are extracted by comparison with the experimental data taken at the same facility during 2022 experimental campaign. We propose a novel methodology to consider both, dead-time and pile-up effects simultaneously for these fast detectors and check the applicability to experimental data from 197^{197}Au(nn,Îł\gamma), including the saturated 4.9~eV resonance which is an important component of normalization for neutron cross section measurements

    Advances and new ideas for neutron-capture astrophysics experiments at CERN n_TOF

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    This article presents a few selected developments and future ideas related to the measurement of (n,Îł) data of astrophysical interest at CERN n_TOF. The MC-aided analysis methodology for the use of low-efficiency radiation detectors in time-of-flight neutron-capture measurements is discussed, with particular emphasis on the systematic accuracy. Several recent instrumental advances are also presented, such as the development of total-energy detectors with Îł-ray imaging capability for background suppression, and the development of an array of small-volume organic scintillators aimed at exploiting the high instantaneous neutron-flux of EAR2. Finally, astrophysics prospects related to the intermediate i neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis are discussed in the context of the new NEAR activation area

    Advances and new ideas for neutron-capture astrophysics experiments at CERN n_TOF

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    This article presents a few selected developments and future ideas related to the measurement of (n,Îł) data of astrophysical interest at CERN n_TOF. The MC-aided analysis methodology for the use of low-efficiency radiation detectors in time-of-flight neutron-capture measurements is discussed, with particular emphasis on the systematic accuracy. Several recent instrumental advances are also presented, such as the development of total-energy detectors with Îł-ray imaging capability for background suppression, and the development of an array of small-volume organic scintillators aimed at exploiting the high instantaneous neutron-flux of EAR2. Finally, astrophysics prospects related to the intermediate i neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis are discussed in the context of the new NEAR activation area

    A Simplified Model for a Preliminary Study of the Dynamic Behaviour of a Small GEN IV LFR DEMO

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    The Lead Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) is one of the six concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as candidates for the long term evolution of nuclear technology. Due to the significant technological innovations it implies, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) recognized that LFR complete development requires the realization of a demonstration plant (DEMO) as a fundamental intermediate step. In this paper, a preliminary approach to the simulation of DEMO primary system dynamic behavior is presented

    POWER TRANSIENT ANALYSES OF EXPERIMENTAL IN-REFLECTOR DEVICES DURING SAFETY SHUTDOWN IN JULES HOROWITZ REACTOR (JHR)

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    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is designed to be a 100 MW material testing reactor (MTR) and it is expected to become the reference facility in the framework of European nuclear research activity. As the core neutron spectrum is quite fast, several experimental devices concerning fuel studies have been conceived to be placed in the reflector in order to exploit a proper thermal neutron flux irradiation. Since the core power is relatively high, the neutronic coupling between the reactor core and the reflector devices has to be taken into account for different rod insertions. In fact the thermal power produced within the fuel samples is considerable. Heat removal during shutdown is a main topic in nuclear safety and it is worth to analyse thermal power transients in fuel samples as well. Here a thermal hydraulic model for JHR core is proposed aiming at a simple and representative description as far as reactivity feedbacks are concerned. Then it is coupled with a neutronic pointwise kinetics analysis by means of the DULCINEE code to compute core power transient calculations. Moreover, some reflector-core coupling evaluations are performed through Monte Carlo method using the TRIPOLI 4.7 code. The JHR equilibrium cycle is considered with respect to four fuel compositions namely Beginning of Cycle (BOC), Xenon Saturation Point (XSP), Middle of Cycle (MOC) and End of Cycle (EOC). Then thermal power transients in the experimental reflector devices are evaluated during safety shutdowns and they are verified for all these cycle steps

    Transient Evaluation of a GEN IV LFR Demonstration Plant througha Lumped Parameters Analysis of Coupled Kinetics and Thermal-Hydraulics

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    A preliminary approach to the simulation of a Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) demonstrator (DEMO) core dynamics has been developed to provide a helpful tool in this early phase of the reactor pre-design -in which all the system specifications are still considered to be open design parameters-, allowing a relatively quick, qualitative analysis of dynamics and stability aspects that cannot be left aside when refining or even finalizing the system configuration
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