1,549 research outputs found

    Neighborhood and individual socio-economic variations in the contribution of occupational physical activity to total physical activity

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    Background: There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity. Methods: Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity. Results: Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found. Conclusions: Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity

    Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity in adults : an ecological perspective

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    Background: Perceived barriers are modifable correlates of participation in physical activity. Associations of specifc perceived barriers with participation in and level of walking for recreation, and other leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were examined. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with these perceived barriers were then examined. Methods: From 2003 to 2004, 2 surveys collected data on recreational walking and other LTPA, perceived barriers to participation, and personal, social, and environmental attributes, from 2194 Australian adults. Zero-infated negative binomial regression models examined associations of perceived barriers with walking and other LTPA. Generalized linear models identifed the correlates of these perceived barriers. Results: The perceived barriers of lack of motivation and time were associated with level of LTPA, while lack of motivation, poor health, and lack of facilities were associated with the odds of non participation in LTPA. Personal, social, and environmental factors independently contributed to variations in perceived barriers. Conclusions: Level and likelihood of participation in LTPA are associated with different perceived barriers. Perceived barriers are a function of both nonmodifable personal factors and potentially modifable personal, social, and environmental factors. These fndings suggest that the provision of relevant environmental opportunities and social support may effectively reduce perceived barriers to LTPA

    An Australian version of the neighborhood environment walkability scale : validity evidence

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    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched for socio-economic status (SES). Neighborhood walkability was measured using Geographic Information Systems data on dwelling density, intersection density, net retail area, and land-use mix. Participants completed the NEWS-AU and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation (International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) was used to define the individual- and Census Collection District (CCD)-level measurement model of the NEWS-AU. Seven individual-level and five CCD-level factors were identified. These measurement models were somewhat similar to those of the original Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS). Patterns of associations between the NEWS-AU factors/scales and the walking measures provided some validity evidence for the instrument. <br /

    Walkable neighbourhoods and community engagement: is there a relationship?

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    Mathematics and Science in Primary Teacher Education: The Design of a Project to Encourage Review at the Institutional Level

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    Over the past two decades evaluation has been one of the growth industries in education. A major impetus for this development, particularly in the united States of America, has been the mandating of evaluations for major policy initiatives at federal and state levels (House, 1981). One result of such legislation has been that academics and private organisations have been engaged, often on long term assignments, to pass judgements on the worth of interventions designed to improve the quality of education made available in educational systems. Features of this approach to evaluation have been that they are large scale well funded, and conducted by experts who have no stake in the programs. Invariably such evaluations have policy makers and politicians as their major audiences, and their major concern is with accountability, making judgements regarding the worth of programs which reflect given policies

    Joint associations of multiple leisure-time sedentary behaviours and physical activity with obesity in Australian adults

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    BackgroundTelevision viewing and physical inactivity are independently associated with risk of obesity. However, how the combination of multiple leisure-time sedentary behaviours (LTSB) and physical activity (LTPA) may contribute to the risk of obesity is not well understood. We examined the joint associations of multiple sedentary behaviours and physical activity with the odds of being overweight or obese.MethodsA mail survey collected the following data from adults living in Adelaide, Australia (n = 2210): self-reported height, weight, six LTSB, LTPA and sociodemographic variables. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their level of LTSB (dichotomised into low and high levels around the median) and LTPA (sufficient: &ge; 2.5 hr/wk; insufficient: &lt; 2.5 hr/wk). Logistic regression analysis examined the odds of being overweight or obese (body mass index &ge; 25 kg/m2) by the combined categories.ResultsThe odds of being overweight or obese relative to the reference category (low sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity) were: 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20&ndash;1.98) for the combination of low sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity; 1.55 (95% CI: 1.20&ndash;2.02) for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity; and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75&ndash;2.92) for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity.ConclusionThose who spent more time in sedentary behaviours (but were sufficiently physically active) and those who were insufficiently active (but spent less time in sedentary behaviour) had a similar risk of being overweight or obese. Reducing leisure-time sedentary behaviours may be as important as increasing leisure-time physical activity as a strategy to fight against obesity in adults.<br /

    Workplace sitting and height-adjustable workstations: a randomized controlled trial

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    Background Desk-based office employees sit for most of their working day. To address excessive sitting as a newly identified health risk, best practice frameworks suggest a multi-component approach. However, these approaches are resource intensive and knowledge about their impact is limited. Purpose To compare the efficacy of a multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting time, to a height-adjustable workstations-only intervention, and to a comparison group (usual practice). Design Three-arm quasi-randomized controlled trial in three separate administrative units of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Data were collected between January and June 2012 and analyzed the same year. Setting/participants Desk-based office workers aged 20-65 (multi-component intervention, n=16; workstations-only, n=14; comparison, n=14). Intervention The multi-component intervention comprised installation of height-adjustable workstations and organizational-level (management consultation, staff education, manager e-mails to staff) and individual-level (face-to-face coaching, telephone support) elements. Main outcome measures Workplace sitting time (minutes/8-hour workday) assessed objectively via activPAL3 devices worn for 7 days at baseline and 3 months (end-of-intervention) . Results At baseline, the mean proportion of workplace sitting time was approximately 77% across all groups (multi-component group 366 minutes/8 hours [SD=49]; workstations-only group 373 minutes/8 hours [SD=36], comparison 365 minutes/8 hours [SD=54]). Following intervention and relative to the comparison group, workplace sitting time in the multi-component group was reduced by 89 minutes/8-hour workday (95% CI=-130, -47 minutes;

    Physical activity, television viewing time and 12 year changes in waist circumference

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    PURPOSE: Both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior can be associated with adult adiposity. Much of the relevant evidence is from cross-sectional studies or from prospective studies with relevant exposure measures at a single time point prior to weight gain or incident obesity. This study examined whether changes in MVPA and television (TV) viewing time are associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference, using data from three separate observation points in a large population-based prospective study of Australian adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study collected in 1999-2000 (baseline), 2004-05 (Wave 2), and 2011-12 (Wave 3). The study sample consisted of adults aged 25 to 74 years at baseline who also attended site measurement at three time points (n=3261). Multilevel linear regression analysis examined associations of initial five-year changes in MVPA and TV viewing time (from baseline to Wave 2) with 12-year change in waist circumference (from baseline to Wave 3), adjusting for well-known confounders. RESULTS: As categorical predictors, increases in MVPA significantly attenuated increases in waist circumference (p for trend&lt; 0.001). TV viewing time change was not significantly associated with changes in waist circumference (p for trend =0.06). Combined categories of MVPA and TV viewing time changes were predictive of waist circumference increases; compared to those who increased MVPA and reduced TV viewing time, those who reduced MVPA and increased TV viewing time had a 2cm greater increase in waist circumference (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Decreasing MVPA emerged as a significant predictor of increases in waist circumference. Increasing TV viewing time was also influential, but its impact was much weaker than MVPA

    Hours spent and energy expended in physical activity domains: Results from The Tomorrow Project cohort in Alberta, Canada

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Knowledge of adult activity patterns across domains of physical activity is essential for the planning of population-based strategies that will increase overall energy expenditure and reduce the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases. We describe domain-specific hours of activity and energy expended among participants in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The <it>Past Year Total Physical Activity Questionnaire </it>was completed by 15,591 <it>Tomorrow Project</it><sup>® </sup>participants, between 2001 and 2005 detailing physical activity type, duration, frequency and intensity. Domain-specific hours of activity and activity-related energy expenditure, expressed as a percent of total energy expenditure (TEE) (Mean (SD); Median (IQR)) are reported across <it>inactive </it>(<1.4), <it>low active </it>(1.4 to 1.59), <it>active </it>(1.6 to 1.89) and <it>very active </it>(≥ 1.9) Physical Activity Level (PAL = TEE:REE) categories.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In <it>very active </it>women and amongst all men except those classified as <it>inactive</it>, activity-related energy expenditure comprised primarily occupational activity. Amongst <it>inactive </it>men and women in <it>active, low active </it>and <it>inactive </it>groups, activity-related energy expenditure from household activity was comparable to, or exceeded that for occupational activity. Leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure decreased with decreasing PAL categories; however, even amongst the most active men and women it accounted for less than 10 percent of TEE. When stratified by employment status, leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure was greatest for retired men [mean (SD): 10.8 (8.5) percent of TEE], compared with those who were fully employed, employed part-time or not employed. Transportation-related activity was negligible across all categories of PAL and employment status.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>For the <it>inactive </it>portion of this population, active non-leisure activities, specifically in the transportation and occupational domains, need to be considered for inclusion in daily routines as a means of increasing population-wide activity levels. Environmental and policy changes to promote active transport and workplace initiatives could increase overall daily energy expenditure through reducing prolonged sitting time.</p
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