4,137 research outputs found

    Geometry considerations for high-order finite-volume methods on structured grids with adaptive mesh refinement

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    2022 Summer.Includes bibliographical references.Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an invaluable tool for engineering design. Meshing complex geometries with accuracy and efficiency is vital to a CFD simulation. In particular, using structured grids with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) will be invaluable to engineering optimization where automation is critical. For high-order (fourth-order and above) finite volume methods (FVMs), discrete representation of complex geometries adds extra challenges. High-order methods are not trivially extended to complex geometries of engineering interest. To accommodate geometric complexity with structured AMR in the context of high-order FVMs, this work aims to develop three new methods. First, a robust method is developed for bounding high-order interpolations between grid levels when using AMR. High-order interpolation is prone to numerical oscillations which can result in unphysical solutions. To overcome this, localized interpolation bounds are enforced while maintaining solution conservation. This method provides great flexibility in how refinement may be used in engineering applications. Second, a mapped multi-block technique is developed, capable of representing moderately complex geometries with structured grids. This method works with high-order FVMs while still enabling AMR and retaining strict solution conservation. This method interfaces with well-established engineering work flows for grid generation and interpolates generalized curvilinear coordinate transformations for each block. Solutions between blocks are then communicated by a generalized interpolation strategy while maintaining a single-valued flux. Finally, an embedded-boundary technique is developed for high-order FVMs. This method is particularly attractive since it automates mesh generation of any complex geometry. However, the algorithms on the resulting meshes require extra attention to achieve both stable and accurate results near boundaries. This is achieved by performing solution reconstructions using a weighted form of high-order interpolation that accounts for boundary geometry. These methods are verified, validated, and tested by complex configurations such as reacting flows in a bluff-body combustor and Stokes flows with complicated geometries. Results demonstrate the new algorithms are effective for solving complex geometries at high-order accuracy with AMR. This study contributes to advance the geometric capability in CFD for efficient and effective engineering applications

    When Patient Activation Levels Change, Health Outcomes and Costs Change, Too

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    Patient engagement has become a major focus of health reform. However, there is limited evidence showing that increases in patient engagement are associated with improved health outcomes or lower costs. This report examined the extent to which a single assessment of engagement, the Patient Activation Measure, was associated with health outcomes and costs over time, and whether changes in assessed activation were related to expected changes in outcomes and costs. The report uses data on adult primary care patients from a single large health care system where the Patient Activation Measure is routinely used. Results indicating higher activation in 2010 were associated with nine out of thirteen better health outcomes -- including better clinical indicators, more healthy behaviors, and greater use of women's preventive screening tests -- as well as with lower costs two years later. Changes in activation level were associated with changes in over half of the health outcomes examined, as well as costs, in the expected directions. These findings suggest that efforts to increase patient activation may help achieve key goals of health reform and that further research is warranted to examine whether the observed associations are causal

    High temperature power electronics for space

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    A high temperature electronics program at NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating materials research, development and testing of high temperature power components, and integration of the developed components and devices into a demonstrable 200 C power system, such as inverter. An overview of the program and a description of the in-house high temperature facilities along with experimental data obtained on high temperature materials are presented

    Electrical properties of teflon and ceramic capacitors at high temperatures

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    Space power systems and components are often required to operate efficiently and reliably in harsh environments where stresses, such as high temperature, are encountered. These systems must, therefore, withstand exposure to high temperature while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. Experiments were carried out to evaluate Teflon and ceramic capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature, up to 200 C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 25 to 200 C. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors studied for high temperature applications

    Electrical characterization of glass, teflon, and tantalum capacitors at high temperatures

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    Dielectric materials and electrical components and devices employed in radiation fields and the space environment are often exposed to elevated temperatures among other things. Therefore, these systems must withstand the high temperature exposure while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. Experiments were carried out to evaluate glass, teflon, and tantalum capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature up to 200 C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. The DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 20 to 200 C. The obtained results are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors investigated for high temperature applications

    On the action potential as a propagating density pulse and the role of anesthetics

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    The Hodgkin-Huxley model of nerve pulse propagation relies on ion currents through specific resistors called ion channels. We discuss a number of classical thermodynamic findings on nerves that are not contained in this classical theory. Particularly striking is the finding of reversible heat changes, thickness and phase changes of the membrane during the action potential. Data on various nerves rather suggest that a reversible density pulse accompanies the action potential of nerves. Here, we attempted to explain these phenomena by propagating solitons that depend on the presence of cooperative phase transitions in the nerve membrane. These transitions are, however, strongly influenced by the presence of anesthetics. Therefore, the thermodynamic theory of nerve pulses suggests a explanation for the famous Meyer-Overton rule that states that the critical anesthetic dose is linearly related to the solubility of the drug in the membranes.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure

    Electron Positron Annihilation Radiation from SgrA East at the Galactic Center

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    Maps of the Galactic electron-positron annihilation radiation show evidence for three distinct and significant features: (1) a central bulge source, (2) emission in the Galactic plane, and (3) an enhancement of emission at positive latitudes above the Galactic Center. In this paper, we explore the possibility that Sgr A East, a very prominent radio structure surrounding the Galactic nucleus, may be a significant contributer to the central bulge feature. The motivation for doing so stems from a recently proposed link between this radio object and the EGRET gamma-ray source 2EG J1746-2852. If this association is correct, then Sgr A East is also expected to be a source of copious positron production. The results presented here show that indeed Sgr A East must have produced a numerically significant population of positrons, but also that most of them have not yet had sufficient time to thermalize and annihilate. As such, Sgr A East by itself does not appear to be the dominant current source of annihilation radiation, but it will be when the positrons have cooled sufficiently and they have become thermalized. This raises the interesting possibility that the bulge component may be due to the relics of earlier explosive events like the one that produced Sgr A East.Comment: This manuscript was prepared with the AAS Latex macros v4.0 It is 37 pages long and has 16 figure

    Optimizing Resistance Coefficients for Large Bed Element Streams

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    This is a report of a comparison of Darcy resistance coefficients calculafed for previously reported laboratory data and those calculated for large bed element streams. Large bed element (LBE) streams exist frequently in nature where rocks derived from valley walls or from channels cutting through ancient glacial or fluvial deposits are moved only under conditions of extreme flood. The height of bed elements is a significant part of the mean depth of flow. The stream gradients are high and are quite stable for all but the highest flows
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