946 research outputs found

    Search for Single Top tW Associated Production in the Dilepton Channel at CMS

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    We present a first study of the single top quark W-associated production (tW) in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV, using data collected with the CMS experiment. The search is performed in the dileptonic final states ee/e\mu/\mu\mu\ with a selection based on kinematical properties and b-tagging information. The contribution of the Z+jets processes to the background is estimated from a sideband in data. Two ttbar dominated control regions are used to constrain the normalization of top quark pair production in the signal region. An excess of events over the expected background is observed. Assigning this excess to events from tW production, the extracted tW cross section is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.Comment: Presented at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics symposium (HCP-2011), Paris, France, November 14-18 2011, 3 pages, 3 figure

    Strategies for increasing diagnostic yield of community-onset bacteraemia within the emergency department: A retrospective study

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    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high mortality. Therefore, reliable methods of detection are of paramount importance. Efficient strategies to improve diagnostic yield of bacteraemia within the emergency department (ED) are needed. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all ED encounters in a high-volume, city-centre university hospital within Germany during a five-year study period from October 2013 to September 2018. A time-series analysis was conducted for all ED encounters in which blood cultures (BCs) were collected. BC detection rates and diagnostic yield of community-onset bacteraemia were compared during the study period (which included 45 months prior to the start of a new diagnostic Antibiotic Stewardship (ABS) bundle and 15 months following its implementation). BCs were obtained from 5,191 out of 66,879 ED admissions (7.8%). Bacteraemia was detected in 1,013 encounters (19.5% of encounters where BCs were obtained). The overall yield of true bacteraemia (defined as yielding clinically relevant pathogens) was 14.4%. The new ABS-related diagnostic protocol resulted in an increased number of hospitalised patients with BCs collected in the ED (18% compared to 12.3%) and a significant increase in patients with two or more BC sets taken (59% compared to 25.4%), which resulted in an improved detection rate of true bacteraemia (2.5% versus 1.8% of hospital admissions) without any decrease in diagnostic yield. This simultaneous increase in BC rates without degradation of yield was a valuable finding that indicated success of this strategy. Thus, implementation of the new diagnostic ABS bundle within the ED, which included the presence of a skilled infectious disease (ID) team focused on obtaining BCs, appeared to be a valuable tool for the accurate and timely detection of community-onset bacteraemia

    S1 Guideline onychomycosis

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    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the fingernails and toenails. In Europe, tinea unguium is mainly caused by dermatophytes. The diagnostic workup comprises microscopic examination, culture and/or molecular testing (nail scrapings). Local treatment with antifungal nail polish is recommended for mild or moderate nail infections. In case of moderate to severe onychomycosis, oral treatment is recommended (in the absence of contraindications). Treatment should consist of topical and systemic agents. The aim of this update of the German S1 guideline is to simplify the selection and implementation of appropriate diagnostics and treatment. The guideline was based on current international guidelines and the results of a literature review conducted by the experts of the guideline committee. This multidisciplinary committee consisted of representatives from the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German‚ÄźSpeaking Mycological Society (DMykG), the Association of German Dermatologists (BVDD), the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM), the German Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Working Group for Pediatric Dermatology (APD) and the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI). The Division of Evidence‚Äźbased Medicine (dEBM) provided methodological assistance. The guideline was approved by the participating medical societies following a comprehensive internal and external review

    Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Prior to our study, mRNA sequences for only 1,556 partial or complete ovine genes were publicly available. Therefore, we developed a composite <it>de novo </it>transcriptome assembly method for next-generation sequence data to combine known ovine mRNA and EST sequences, mRNA sequences from mouse and cow, and sequences assembled <it>de novo </it>from short read RNA-Seq data into a composite reference transcriptome, and identified transcripts from over 12 thousand previously undescribed ovine genes. Gene expression analysis based on these data revealed substantially different expression profiles in standard versus delayed bone healing in an ovine tibial osteotomy model. Hundreds of transcripts were differentially expressed between standard and delayed healing and between the time points of the standard and delayed healing groups. We used the sheep sequences to design quantitative RT-PCR assays with which we validated the differential expression of 26 genes that had been identified by RNA-seq analysis. A number of clusters of characteristic expression profiles could be identified, some of which showed striking differences between the standard and delayed healing groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in terms including <it>extracellular matrix</it>, <it>cartilage development</it>, <it>contractile fiber</it>, and <it>chemokine activity</it>.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results provide a first atlas of gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes in standard and delayed bone healing in a large-animal model and provide a number of clues as to the shifts in gene expression that underlie delayed bone healing. In the course of our study, we identified transcripts of 13,987 ovine genes, including 12,431 genes for which no sequence information was previously available. This information will provide a basis for future molecular research involving the sheep as a model organism.</p

    Defining Chlorophyll-a Reference Conditions in European Lakes

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    The concept of ‚Äúreference conditions‚ÄĚ describes the benchmark against which current conditions are compared when assessing the status of water bodies. In this paper we focus on the establishment of reference conditions for European lakes according to a phytoplankton biomass indicator‚ÄĒthe concentration of chlorophyll-a. A mostly spatial approach (selection of existing lakes with no or minor human impact) was used to set the reference conditions for chlorophyll-a values, supplemented by historical data, paleolimnological investigations and modelling. The work resulted in definition of reference conditions and the boundary between ‚Äúhigh‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúgood‚ÄĚ status for 15 main lake types and five ecoregions of Europe: Alpine, Atlantic, Central/Baltic, Mediterranean, and Northern. Additionally, empirical models were developed for estimating site-specific reference chlorophyll-a concentrations from a set of potential predictor variables. The results were recently formulated into the EU legislation, marking the first attempt in international water policy to move from chemical quality standards to ecological quality targets

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation