99 research outputs found

    Open Access of COVID-19-related publications in the first quarter of 2020: a preliminary study based in PubMed

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    Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has made funders, researchers and publishers agree to have research publications, as well as other research outputs, such as data, become openly available. In this extraordinary research context of the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, publishers are announcing that their coronavirus-related articles will be made immediately accessible in appropriate open repositories, like PubMed Central (PMC), agreeing upon funders' and researchers' instigation.Methods: This work uses Unpaywall, OpenRefine and PubMed to analyse the level of openness of the papers about COVID-19, published during the first quarter of 2020. It also analyses Open Access (OA) articles published about previous coronavirus (SARS CoV-1 and MERS CoV) as a means of comparison.Results: A total of 5,611 COVID-19-related articles were analysed from PubMed. This is a much higher amount for a period of 4 months compared to those found for SARS CoV-1 and MERS during the first year of their first outbreaks (337 and 125 articles, respectively). Regarding the levels of openness, 97.4% of the SARS CoV-2 papers are freely available; similar rates were found for the other coronaviruses. Deeper analysis showed that (i) 68.3% of articles belong to an undefined Bronze category; (ii) 72.1% of all OA papers don't carry a specific license and in all cases where there is, half of them do not meet Open Access standards; (iii) there is a large proportion that present a copy in a repository, in most cases in PMC, where this trend is also observed. These patterns were found to be repeated in most frequent publishers: Elsevier, Springer and Wiley.Conclusions: Our results suggest that, although scientific production is much higher than during previous epidemics and is open, there is a caveat to this opening, characterized by the absence of fundamental elements and values ​​on which Open Science is based, such as licensing[version 2; peer review: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Therapeutic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles for Demyelinating Diseases; Challenges and Opportunities

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    Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system for which no remyelination therapy is available and alternative strategies are being tested. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as players in physiological and pathological processes and are being proposed as therapeutic targets and mediators. More concretely, EVs have shown to be involved in myelination related processes such as axon-oligodendrocyte communication or oligodendrocyte precursor cell migration. In addition, EVs have been shown to carry genetic material and small compounds, and to be able to cross the Blood Brain Barrier. This scenario led scientists to test the ability of EVs as myelin regeneration promoters in demyelinating diseases. In this review we will address the use of EVs as remyelination promoters and the challenges and opportunities of this therapy will be discussed

    MiR-219a-5p Enriched Extracellular Vesicles Induce OPC Differentiation and EAE Improvement More Efficiently Than Liposomes and Polymeric Nanoparticles

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    Remyelination is a key aspect in multiple sclerosis pathology and a special effort is being made to promote it. However, there is still no available treatment to regenerate myelin and several strategies are being scrutinized. Myelination is naturally performed by oligodendrocytes and microRNAs have been postulated as a promising tool to induce oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and therefore remyelination. Herein, DSPC liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles were studied for miR-219a-5p encapsulation, release and remyelination promotion. In parallel, they were compared with biologically engineered extracellular vesicles overexpressing miR-219a-5p. Interestingly, extracellular vesicles showed the highest oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation levels and were more effective than liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles crossing the blood–brain barrier. Finally, extracellular vesicles were able to improve EAE animal model clinical evolution. Our results indicate that the use of extracellular vesicles as miR-219a-5p delivery system can be a feasible and promising strategy to induce remyelination in multiple sclerosis patients.This work was supported by Carlos III Institute, (PI17/00189 and DTS15/00069), by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional—FEDER, by the Gipuzkoa Regional Council (DFG 15/006), by grant from the Basque Government (RIS3/DTS/2018222025), by the Department of Industry of the Basque Country (ELKARTEK 16/014), and the Spanish State Research Agency (SAF2017-87670-R) and Maria de Maeztu Units of Excellence Program Grant MDM-2017-0720). I.O.-Q., A.A. and L.I. were supported by the Department of Education of the Basque Government. IOQ and LAN were supported by EMBO short Term Fellowship Programme. LAN was supported by a Canadian graduate scholarship from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CGS-D CIHR).PRC was supported by Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science

    Peripheral myeloid-derived suppressor cells are good biomarkers of the efficacy of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis

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    Personalized medicine; Responder and non-responderMedicina personalizada; Respondedor y no respondedorMedicina personalitzada; Contestador i no contestadorBackground The increasing number of treatments that are now available to manage patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) highlights the need to develop biomarkers that can be used within the framework of individualized medicine. Fingolimod is a disease-modifying treatment that belongs to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators. In addition to inhibiting T cell egress from lymph nodes, fingolimod promotes the immunosuppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), whose monocytic subset (M-MDSCs) can be used as a biomarker of disease severity, as well as the degree of demyelination and extent of axonal damage in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. In the present study, we have assessed whether the abundance of circulating M-MDSCs may represent a useful biomarker of fingolimod efficacy in EAE and in the clinical context of MS patients. Methods Treatment with vehicle or fingolimod was orally administered to EAE mice for 14 days in an individualized manner, starting the day when each mouse began to develop clinical signs. Peripheral blood from EAE mice was collected previous to treatment and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from fingolimod to treat MS patients’ peripheral blood. In both cases, M-MDSCs abundance was analyzed by flow cytometry and its relationship with the future clinical affectation of each individual animal or patient was assessed. Results Fingolimod-treated animals presented a milder EAE course with less demyelination and axonal damage, although a few animals did not respond well to treatment and they invariably had fewer M-MDSCs prior to initiating the treatment. Remarkably, M-MDSC abundance was also found to be an important and specific parameter to distinguish EAE mice prone to better fingolimod efficacy. Finally, in a translational effort, M-MDSCs were quantified in MS patients at baseline and correlated with different clinical parameters after 12 months of fingolimod treatment. M-MDSCs at baseline were highly representative of a good therapeutic response to fingolimod, i.e., patients who met at least two of the criteria used to define non-evidence of disease activity-3 (NEDA-3) 12 months after treatment. Conclusion Our data indicate that M-MDSCs might be a useful predictive biomarker of the response of MS patients to fingolimod.This work was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI18/00357, RD16-0015/0019, PI21/00302, all co-funded by the European Union), the Fundación Merck Salud (FMS_2020_MS), Esclerosis Múltiple España (REEM-EME-S5 and REEM-EME_2018), ADEMTO, ATORDEM and AELEM. CC-T holds a predoctoral fellowship from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FI19/00132, co-funded by the European Union). LC and JG-A were hired under PI18/00357 and RD16/0015/0019, respectively. DC, MCO and IM-D were hired by SESCAM

    Expression Profiling Analysis Reveals Key MicroRNA– mRNA Interactions in Early Retinal Degeneration in Retinitis Pigmentosa

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    PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) that might play an important role in the etiology of retinal degeneration in a genetic mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa (rd10 mice) at initial stages of the disease. Methods. miRNAs-mRNA interaction networks were generated for analysis of biological pathways involved in retinal degeneration. RESULTS. Of more than 1900 miRNAs analyzed, we selected 19 miRNAs on the basis of (1) a significant differential expression in rd10 retinas compared with control samples and (2) an inverse expression relationship with predicted mRNA targets involved in biological pathways relevant to retinal biology and/or degeneration. Seven of the selected miRNAs have been associated with retinal dystrophies, whereas, to our knowledge, nine have not been previously linked to any disease. CONCLUSIONS. This study contributes to our understanding of the etiology and progression of retinal degeneration.Supported by the Fundacion Jesus de Gangoiti Barrera and from the Basque Government's Department of Industry and Education Grants SAIOTEK-PE11BN002, PC12BN001, and DEPLC13/002 (AA, JRE); funds from Foundation of Patients of Retinitis Pigmentosa of Gipuzkoa (Retinosis Gipuzkoa Begisare) (OB); a grant from the Fundacion Mutua Madrilena (OB); Basque Government's Department of Education grants DEDUC14/309 (MEI), Diputacion Foral de Gipuzkoa DFG15/006 (MM-C), and ELKARTEK 16/014 (MM-C); National Institute of Health Carlos III (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) Grants ISCIII: CP10/00572 (JRE), PI13/02621 (JRE); an Intensificacion Contract (ALdM) from the Basque Government's Department of Industry; and a grant from the Foundation of Patients of Retinitis Pigmentosa of Gipuzkoa (Retinosis Gipuzkoa Begisare) (JRE). JR-E is a Miguel Servet II Fellow, National Institute of Health Carlos III (Instituto de Salud Carlos III), ISCIII: CPII16/00012

    Microbial dysbiosis and lack of SCFA production in a Spanish cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating, and immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system caused by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The incidence of MS has increased in the past several decades, suggesting changes in the environmental risk factors. Much effort has been made in the description of the gut microbiota in MS; however, little is known about the dysbiosis on its function. The microbiota produces thousands of biologically active substances among which are notable the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) excretion. Objectives: Analyze the interaction between microbiota, SCFAs, diet, and MS. Methods: 16S, nutritional questionnaires, and SCFAS quantification have been recovered from MS patients and controls. Results: Our results revealed an increment in the phylum Proteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, a lack in total SCFA excretion, and an altered profile of SCFAs in a Spanish cohort of MS patients. These alterations are more evident in patients with higher disability. Conclusions: The abundance of Proteobacteria and acetate and the low excretion of total SCFAs, especially butyrate, are common characteristics of MS patients, and besides, both are associated with a worse prognosis of the disease.This work was supported by the Spanish Network of Multiple Sclerosis (REEM) under the grant (BIOD19-021) and by Basque government projects (2018111038 and 2019111013)

    Identification of ncRNAs as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Sclerosis Through Differential ncRNA – mRNA Network Analysis

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    Background: Several studies have revealed a potential role for both small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the physiopathology of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This potential implication has been mainly described through differential expression studies. However, it has been suggested that, in order to extract additional information from large-scale expression experiments, differential expression studies must be complemented with differential network studies. Thus, the present work is aimed at the identification of potential therapeutic ncRNA targets for RRMS through differential network analysis of ncRNA - mRNA coexpression networks. ncRNA - mRNA coexpression networks have been constructed from both selected ncRNA (specifically miRNAs, snoRNAs and sdRNAs) and mRNA large-scale expression data obtained from 22 patients in relapse, the same 22 patients in remission and 22 healthy controls. Condition-specific (relapse, remission and healthy) networks have been built and compared to identify the parts of the system most affected by perturbation and aid the identification of potential therapeutic targets among the ncRNAs. Results: All the coexpression networks we built present a scale-free topology and many snoRNAs are shown to have a prominent role in their architecture. The differential network analysis (relapse vs. remission vs. controls' networks) has revealed that, although both network topology and the majority of the genes are maintained, few ncRNA - mRNA links appear in more than one network. We have selected as potential therapeutic targets the ncRNAs that appear in the disease-specific network and were found to be differentially expressed in a previous study. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the diseased state of RRMS has a strong impact on the ncRNA - mRNA network of peripheral blood leukocytes, as a massive rewiring of the network happens between conditions. Our findings also indicate that the role snoRNAs have in targeted gene silencing is a widespread phenomenon. Finally, among the potential therapeutic target ncRNAs, SNORA40 seems to be the most promising candidate.This work has been supported partially by Fondo de investigacion Sanitaria from Instituto Carlos III through the project FIS PS09/02105, by SAIOTEK (SAIO11-PC11BN003) and by the Spanish Net of Multiple Sclerosis. HI and MMC has been supported by departamento de educacion del Gobierno Vasco through a PhD grant
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