176 research outputs found

    Thrombelastography and tromboelastometry in assessing coagulopathy in trauma

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    Death due to trauma is the leading cause of lost life years worldwide, with haemorrhage being responsible for 30-40% of trauma mortality and accounting for almost 50% of the deaths the initial 24 h. On admission, 25-35% of trauma patients present with coagulopathy, which is associated with a several-fold increase in morbidity and mortality. The recent introduction of haemostatic control resuscitation along with emerging understanding of acute post-traumatic coagulability, are important means to improve therapy and outcome in exsanguinating trauma patients. This change in therapy has emphasized the urgent need for adequate haemostatic assays to monitor traumatic coagulopathy and guide therapy. Based on the cell-based model of haemostasis, there is emerging consensus that plasma-based routine coagulation tests (RCoT), like prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), are inappropriate for monitoring coagulopathy and guide therapy in trauma. The necessity to analyze whole blood to accurately identify relevant coagulopathies, has led to a revival of the interest in viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHA) such as Thromboelastography (TEG®) and Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). Clinical studies including about 5000 surgical and/or trauma patients have reported on the benefit of using the VHA as compared to plasma-based assays, to identify coagulopathy and guide therapy

    Thrombelastography and biomarker profiles in acute coagulopathy of trauma: a prospective study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Severe injury induces an acute coagulopathy associated with increased mortality. This study compared the Thrombelastography (TEG) and biomarker profiles upon admission in trauma patients.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry including standard coagulation tests, hematology, transfusions, Injury Severity Score (ISS) and TEG were recorded. Retrospective analysis of thawed plasma/serum for biomarkers reflecting tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments), sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (sCD40L, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, prothrombinfragment 1+2, plasmin/α<sub>2</sub>-antiplasmin complex, thrombin/antithrombin complex, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, von willebrand factor, factor XIII). Comparison of patients stratified according to ISS/TEG maximum clot strength. Linear regression analysis of variables associated with clot strength.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Trauma patients had normal (86%), hypercoagulable (11%) or hypocoagulable (1%) TEG clot strength; one had primary hyperfibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable patients had higher age, fibrinogen and platelet count (all p < 0.05), none had increased activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) and none required massive transfusion (> 10 red blood cells the initial 24 h). Patients with normal or hypercoagulable TEG clot strength had comparable biomarker profiles, but the few patients with hypocoagulable TEG clot strength and/or hyperfibrinolysis had very different biomarker profiles.</p> <p>Increasing ISS was associated with higher levels of catecholamines, histone-complexed DNA fragments, sCD40L, activated protein C and D-dimer and reduced levels of non-activated protein C, antithrombin, fibrinogen and factor XIII (all p < 0.05). Fibrinogen and platelet count were associated independently with clot strength in patients with ISS ≤ 26 whereas only fibrinogen was associated independently with clot strength in patients with ISS > 26. In patients with ISS > 26, adrenaline and sCD40L were independently negatively associated with clot strength.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Trauma patients displayed different coagulopathies by TEG and variables independently associated with clot strength changed with ISS. In the highest ISS group, adrenaline and sCD40L were independently negatively associated with clot strength indicating that these may contribute to acute coagulopathy.</p

    Blood product ratio in acute traumatic coagulopathy - effect on mortality in a Scandinavian level 1 trauma centre

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    BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of loss of life expectancy worldwide. In the most seriously injured patients, coagulopathy is often present on admission. Therefore, transfusion strategies to increase the ratio of plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC), simulating whole blood, have been introduced. Several studies report that higher ratios improve survival in massively bleeding patients. Here, the aim was to investigate the potential effect of increased FFP and PLT to RBC on mortality in trauma patients. METHODS: In a retrospective before and after study, all trauma patients primarily admitted to a level-one Trauma Centre, receiving blood transfusion, in 2001-3 (n = 97) and 2005-7 (n = 156), were included. In 2001-3, FFP and PLT were administered in accordance with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) guidelines whereas in 2005-7, Hemostatic Control Resuscitation (HCR) entailing pre-emptive use of FFP and PLT in transfusion packages during uncontrolled haemorrhage and thereafter guided by thrombelastograph (TEG) analysis was employed. The effect of transfusion therapy and coagulopathy on mortality was investigated. RESULTS: Patients included in the early and late period had comparable demography, injury severity score (ISS), admission hematology and coagulopathy (27% vs. 34% had APTT above normal). There was a significant change in blood transfusion practice with shorter time interval from admission to first transfusion (median time 3 min vs.28 min in massive bleeders, p < 0.001), transfusion of higher ratios of FFP:RBC, PLT:RBC and PLT:FFP in the HCR group but 30-day mortality remained comparable in the two periods. In the 2005-7 period, higher age, ISS and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) above normal were independent predictors of mortality whereas no association was fund between blood product ratios and mortality. CONCLUSION: Aggressive administration of FFP and PLT did not influence mortality in the present trauma population

    High levels of soluble VEGF receptor 1 early after trauma are associated with shock, sympathoadrenal activation, glycocalyx degradation and inflammation in severely injured patients: a prospective study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) is increased in sepsis and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. Endothelial activation and damage contribute to both sepsis and trauma pathology. Therefore, this study measured sVEGFR1 levels in trauma patients upon hospital admission hypothesizing that sVEGFR1 would increase with higher injury severity and predict a poor outcome.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry, Injury Severity Score (ISS), transfusions and 30-day mortality were recorded and plasma/serum (sampled a median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) was analyzed for sVEGFR1 and biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, hcDNA), endothelial activation and damage (von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Angiopoietin-2, soluble endothelial protein C receptor, syndecan-1, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM)), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer) and inflammation (interleukin-6). Spearman correlations and regression analyses to identify variables associated with sVEGFR1 and its predictive value.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Circulating sVEGFR1 correlated with injury severity (ISS, rho = 0.46), shock (SBE, rho = -0.38; adrenaline, rho = 0.47), tissue injury (hcDNA, rho = 0.44) and inflammation (IL-6, rho = 0.54) (all p < 0.01) but by multivariate linear regression analysis only lower SBE and higher adrenaline and IL-6 were independent predictors of higher sVEGFR1. sVEGFR1 also correlated with biomarkers indicative of endothelial glycocalyx degradation (syndecan-1, rho = 0.67), endothelial cell damage (sTM, rho = 0.66) and activation (Ang-2, rho = 0.31) and hyperfibrinolysis (tPA, rho = 0.39; D-dimer, rho = 0.58) and with activated protein C (rho = 0.31) (all p < 0.01). High circulating sVEGFR1 correlated with high early and late transfusion requirements (number of packed red blood cells (RBC) at 1 h (rho = 0.27, p = 0.016), 6 h (rho = 0.27, p = 0.017) and 24 h (rho = 0.31, p = 0.004) but was not associated with mortality.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>sVEGFR1 increased with increasing injury severity, shock and inflammation early after trauma but only sympathoadrenal activation, hypoperfusion, and inflammation were independent predictors of sVEGFR1 levels. sVEGFR1 correlated strongly with other biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage and with RBC transfusion requirements. Sympathoadrenal activation, shock and inflammation may be critical drivers of endothelial activation and damage early after trauma.</p

    Monitoring of dabigatran anticoagulation and its reversal in vitro by thrombelastography.

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    Dabigatran etexilate, a pro-drug of a direct thrombin inhibitor, was approved a few years ago for non-valvular atrial fibrillation and deep venous thrombosis. Rapid monitoring of the dabigatran level is essential in trauma and bleeding patients but the traditional plasma-based assays may not sufficiently display the effect. Furthermore, no antidote exists and reversal of the anticoagulant effect is impossible or difficult. The present study investigated the in vitro effect of dabigatran on whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) and its reversal by recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate

    Cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities in optimally treated HIV patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurologically intact HIV patients with fully suppressed HIV viral loads. Concomitant analyses of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were performed to correlate these abnormalities with potential signs of neuro-regenerating/protective activity, and concomitant analyses of circulating tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 6, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were performed to correlate these abnormalities with potential signs of neurodegenerative processes.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The study population consisted of HIV-positive patients known to be infected for more than 5 years and on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for a minimum of three years with no history of virological failure, a CD4 count above 200 × 10<sup>6 </sup>cells/l and no other co-morbidities. The distribution of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism was measured using fluorine-18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. The PET scans were evaluated for individual pathology using Neurostat software and for group pathology using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Circulating levels of BDNF, TNF α, IL-6 and suPAR were measured by ELISA techniques.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>More than half (55%) of the patients exhibited varying severities of mesial frontal reduction in the relative metabolic rate of glucose. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients with abnormal FDG-PET scanning results had a shorter history of known HIV infection, fewer years on antiretroviral therapy and higher levels of circulating TNF α and IL-6 (<it>p </it>= 0.08).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>A large proportion of optimally treated HIV patients exhibit cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities and elevated TNF α and IL-6 levels, which may indicate imminent neuronal damage. The neuroprotective effect of early ARV treatment should be considered in future prospective follow-up studies.</p

    Impaired platelet aggregation and rebalanced hemostasis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

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    Increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bleeding has been found in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, and a re-balanced hemostasis has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate functional whole blood coagulation and platelet function in CHC infection. The prospective study included 82 patients with CHC infection (39 with advanced liver fibrosis and 43 with no or mild liver fibrosis) and 39 healthy controls. A total of 33 patients were treated for CHC infection and achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Baseline and post-treatment blood samples were collected. Hemostasis was assessed by both standard coagulation tests and functional whole blood hemostatic assays (thromboelastograhy (TEG), and platelet aggregation (Multiplate). Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis had impaired platelet aggregation both compared to patients with no or mild fibrosis and to healthy controls. Patients with CHC and advanced fibrosis also had lower antithrombin, platelet count, and coagulation factors II-VII-X compared to healthy controls. In contrast, TEG did not differ between groups. In treated patients achieving SVR, post-treatment platelet count was higher than pre-treatment counts (p = 0.033) and ADPtest, ASPItest, and RISTOhightest all increased post treatment (all p &lt; 0.05). All Multiplate tests values, however, remained below those in the healthy controls. CHC-infected patients displayed evidence of rebalanced hemostasis with only partly hemostatic normalization in patients achieving SVR. The implications of rebalanced hemostasis and especially the impact on risk of CVD and bleeding warrants further studies

    Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis

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    BACKGROUND: The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. RESULTS: 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group; nearly half received both RBCs and plasma) whereas 182 patients only received in-hospital blood products (RBCs, Plasma and Platelets) within 6 hours of admission (IH group). PH patients had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, more penetrating injuries, lower systolic blood pressures, lower hemoglobin levels, lower platelet counts and greater acidosis upon ED admission than the IH group (all p < 0.05). Despite differences in type of injury and admission vitals indicating that the PH group had more signs of bleeding than the IH group, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (PH 26.7% vs. IH 20.9% p = 0.31). When comparing rTEG variables between PH patients transfused with 0, 1 or 2 units of plasma, more pre-hospital plasma transfusion was tendency towards improved rTEG variables. When adjusting for pre-hospital RBC, pre-hospital plasma was associated with significantly higher rTEG MA (p = 0.012) at hospital admission. DISCUSSION: After adjusting for pre-hospital RBCs, pre-hospital plasma transfusion was independently associated with increased rTEG MA, as well as arrival indices of shock and hemodynamic instability. Besides more severe injury and worse clinical presentation, the group that received pre-hospital transfusion had early and late mortality similar to patients not transfused pre-hospital. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that early administration of plasma can provide significant hemostatic and potential survival benefit to severely hemorrhaging trauma patients

    Traumatic Endotheliopathy:A Prospective Observational Study of 424 Severely Injured Patients

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    OBJECTIVE: Investigate and confirm the association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy and poor outcome in trauma patients. BACKGROUND: The association between sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy, and poor outcome in trauma has only been demonstrated in smaller patient cohorts and animal models but needs confirmation in a large independent patient cohort. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 424 trauma patients admitted to a level 1 Trauma Center. Admission plasma levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, and sE-selectin) were measured and demography, injury type and severity, physiology, treatment, and mortality up till 28 days were recorded. RESULTS: Patients had a median ISS of 17 with 72% suffering from blunt injury. Adrenaline and noradrenaline correlated with syndecan-1 (r = 0.38, P < 0.001 and r = 0.23, P < 0.001, respectively) but adrenaline was the only independent predictor of syndecan-1 by multiple linear regression adjusted for age, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, base excess, platelet count, hemoglobin, prehospital plasma, and prehospital fluids (100 pg/mL higher adrenaline predicted 2.75 ng/mL higher syndecan-1, P < 0.001). By Cox analyses adjusted for age, sex, injury severity score, Glascow Coma Scale, base excess, platelet count and hemoglobin, adrenaline, and syndecan-1 were the only independent predictors of both <24-hours, 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, noradrenaline was an independent predictor of <24-hours mortality and thrombomodulin was an independent predictor of 7-day and 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that sympathoadrenal activation was strongly and independently associated with endothelial glycocalyx and cell damage (ie, endotheliopathy) and furthermore that sympathoadrenal activation and endotheliopathy were independent predictors of mortality in trauma patients
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