284 research outputs found

    Translation DE-ES of Two Scientific Articles and their Adaptation through Graphic Medicine: The Case of the HPV Vaccination and Sexual Behaviour and STI Prevention

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    Premio extraordinario de Trabajo Fin de M√°ster curso 2021/2022. M√°ster en Traducci√≥n Especializada (Ingl√©s / Franc√©s / Alem√°n - Espa√Īol)El presente trabajo recoge la traducci√≥n de dos art√≠culos cient√≠ficos de tem√°tica m√©dica que versan sobre la vacuna del Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) y prevenci√≥n frente a otras Infecciones de Transmisi√≥n Sexual (ITS). En dicho proceso de traducci√≥n, nos hemos servido de las conclusiones a las que hemos llegado tras realizar un estudio te√≥rico y un an√°lisis contrastivo de las caracter√≠sticas del lenguaje t√©cnico-cient√≠fico en alem√°n y en espa√Īol, as√≠ como del art√≠culo cient√≠fico en ambas lenguas. Con el fin de actualizar la informaci√≥n disponible sobre ITS en Espa√Īa y hacerla accesible a la poblaci√≥n general, hemos adaptado los textos traducidos a dos nuevos formatos contemplados dentro de la disciplina de la medicina gr√°fica: folleto (para ni√Īos y ni√Īas entre 9 y 14 a√Īos) e infograf√≠a (para j√≥venes y adultos de entre 20 y 35 a√Īos). El paso de un g√©nero especializado a otro no especializado requiere un proceso de desterminologizaci√≥n, a partir del cual hemos creado 43 fichas terminol√≥gicas trinling√ľes (alem√°n > espa√Īol > ingl√©s).This paper presents the translation of two scientific articles on medical topics related to the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and the prevention of other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). During the translation process, conclusions reached after carrying out a theoretical study and a contrastive analysis of the characteristics of the technical-scientific language in German and Spanish, as well as the scientific article in both languages have been applied. Aiming at updating the information available on STIs in Spain and make it comprehensible to the general population, the translated texts have been adapted to two new text formats contemplated in Graphic Medicine: a brochure (for children between 9 and 14 years of age) and an infographic (for young people and adults between 20 and 35 years of age). Turning a specialised genre to a non-specialised one requires a process of determinologisation which has been described on 43 trilingual terminological cards (German > Spanish > English) that have been elaborated for such purpose

    Metal Removal by Seaweed Biomass

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    Environmental metal pollution is a serious public problem, and it has become an issue leading to research in the effluent remediation area. Techniques involving biosorption processes have been found to be promising due to the low cost of nonliving biomaterials, which have the potential to adsorb metal ions from wastewaters. One of the most promising types of biomasses to be used as biosorbents is the seaweed biomass, particularly from brown algae. The biosorption capability of the seaweed biomass relies on their cell wall chemical composition, mainly composed of alginates and fucoidans, molecules with a high presence of functional groups that interact with metal ions. This book chapter focuses on the use of seaweed biomass for metal biosorption and the chemical basis underlying the process. The current state of the commercial status of biosorption technology based on seaweed biomass is presented. Examples of complementary uses of the algae biomass other than industrial wastewater cleaning processes are presented, and the potential reuse of the biomass after the biosorption focused on biofuel production is discussed

    La empat√≠a y su ense√Īanza - aprendizaje como componente fundamental de la pr√°ctica m√©dica

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    En el ejercicio de la medicina, la empatía, como componente esencial del profesionalismo médico y eje de aprendizaje transversal en las facultades de ciencias de la salud, merece un lugar especial y de análisis, ya que la ausencia de ésta y de las habilidades de comunicación en general, deterioran la calidad en la relación médico-paciente. Estudios y experiencias evidencian que los médicos empáticos y con un manejo efectivo de las técnicas de comunicación pueden lograr mejores aproximaciones diagnosticas y están menos expuestos a las acciones legales por parte de pacientes demandantes. La empatía y las herramientas efectivas de comunicación son competencias susceptibles de ser adquiridas mediante el concurso de diferentes prácticas pedagógicas, específicamente a través de la estrategia didáctica de aprendizaje basado en casos, la cual se propone incorporar en el currículo de formación médica dentro de cada una de las aulas

    Un mapeo de los programas de educacion a distancia en el √°mbito de la UNC

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    Fil: Clydes Bersab√©, Silva. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Fil: Ortiz, Claudia Isabel . Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Fil: Zuccarino, C√©sar Rogelio. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Esta comunicaci√≥n tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar las principales √°reas en las cuales los programas de Educaci√≥n a Distancia se han desarrollado, en el √°mbito de la Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Se parte de una breve historizaci√≥n de la incorporaci√≥n de este sistema educativo en el √°mbito de la Educaci√≥n Superior y la identificaci√≥n de las √°reas de conocimiento que han generado propuestas en esta l√≠nea. Este an√°lisis preliminar apunta establecer puntos de relaci√≥n entre la incorporaci√≥n de las Tecnolog√≠as de la Informaci√≥n y la Comunicaci√≥n en la Educaci√≥n Superior y los lineamientos pol√≠ticos impulsados desde el a√Īo 2003 en Argentina y especialmente, a partir de la creaci√≥n del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n Productiva (MINCyT) en el a√Īo 2007. Fundamentalmente en un contexto donde se ha promovido la incorporaci√≥n de TIC¬īs, a trav√©s de diversos programas, en los niveles primarios y secundarios de la educaci√≥n. Esta propuesta se enmarca en un proyecto de investigaci√≥n mayor1 que tiene como meta explorar e identificar las √°reas o l√≠neas de acci√≥n promovidas a partir de las pol√≠ticas p√ļblicas de Ciencia y Tecnolog√≠a en dicho per√≠odo por el MINCyT.http://www.alaic2015.eci.unc.edu.ar/publicaciones/Fil: Clydes Bersab√©, Silva. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Fil: Ortiz, Claudia Isabel . Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Fil: Zuccarino, C√©sar Rogelio. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicaci√≥n; Argentina.Ciencias Sociales Interdisciplinaria

    Spatial and socioeconomic inequalities in the access to safe drinking water in Peruvian households

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    "Access to safe drinking water has increased in Peru over the last decades, from 47% (2008) to 52% (2018). Nevertheless, such access would differ according to socioeconomic and regional factors. Thus, this study aimed to assess the socioeconomic inequality in the access to safe drinking water and identify its spatial distribution. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the secondary data analysis of the 2021 Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey. Access to safe drinking water was a dummy variable categorised as safe if the residual chlorine concentration was 0.5 mg/L. Nationwide, 29.22% of households had access to safe drinking water. A pro-rich inequality in access to safe drinking water was observed. The spatial distribution was clustered. Significant hotspots were found in the south and centre of the country; however, cold spots were found in most areas. SaTScan analysis identified 32 and 63 significant clusters at high and low risks of having access to safe drinking water, respectively. In conclusion, approximately one out of four Peruvian households has access to safe drinking water, which was mostly concentrated among the wealthier households. Intra- and interdepartmental inequalities in access to safe drinking water were found, with several high-risk clusters.

    Elementos que favorecen el enriquecimiento trabajo ‚Äď familia en una instituci√≥n educativa femenina en Bogot√°, Colombia

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    88 P√°ginas.‚Äč La presente investigaci√≥n identifica los elementos que permiten el enriquecimiento trabajo-familia en una instituci√≥n educativa femenina de educaci√≥n b√°sica, media y vocacional, con enfoque antropol√≥gico, donde se realiz√≥ un diagn√≥stico que determin√≥ si la cultura institucional favorec√≠a la Responsabilidad Familiar Corporativa (RFC). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la instituci√≥n se ubica en un entorno (C), Desfavorable, que significa que su cultura, liderazgo y pol√≠ticas, dificultan la conciliaci√≥n laboral y familiar y por tanto el enriquecimiento entre estos √°mbitos. Esta situaci√≥n se debe a una cierta ausencia de pol√≠ticas RFC formales como flexibilidad; apoyo familiar; y comunicaci√≥n de las pr√°cticas que se realizan actualmente. Tambi√©n se identific√≥ que el liderazgo resulta d√©bil puesto que se percibe una falta de apoyo instrumental, emocional y ejemplo por parte de directivas en la vivencia de la integraci√≥n trabajo-familia. Se encontr√≥ percepci√≥n por parte de colaboradoras y l√≠deres, de exceso de trabajo que ocasiona anteponer √©ste por encima de la familia. En la medida que estos elementos no se desarrollen para fortalecer la conciliaci√≥n trabajo-familia, el enriquecimiento de estos √°mbitos tampoco se dar√°. Basado en estos resultados se presentan unas recomendaciones orientadas a enriquecer el entorno para que se viva la cultura RFC

    Absence of A3Z3-related hypermutations in the env and vif proviral genes in FIV naturally infected cats

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    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) proteins comprise an important family of restriction factors that produce hypermutations on proviral DNA and are able to limit virus replication. Vif, an accessory protein present in almost all lentiviruses, counteracts the antiviral A3 activity. Seven haplotypes of APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3) were described in domestic cats (hap I‚ÄďVII), and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that these proteins reduce infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Moreover, hap V is resistant to vif-mediated degradation. However, studies on the effect of A3Z3 in FIV-infected cats have not been developed. Here, the correlation between APOBEC A3Z3 haplotypes in domestic cats and the frequency of hypermutations in the FIV vif and env genes were assessed in a retrospective cohort study with 30 blood samples collected between 2012 and 2016 from naturally FIV-infected cats in Brazil. The vif and env sequences were analyzed and displayed low or undetectable levels of hypermutations, and could not be associated with any specific A3Z3 haplotype

    Factors related to successful control of an outbreak by Klebsiella pneumonia-producing KPC-2 in an intensive care unit in Bogot√°, Colombia

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    La resistencia a carbapen√©micos en Klebsiella pneumoniae ha aumentado de manera considerable, incrementando las tasas de morbimortalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir las caracter√≠sticas epidemiol√≥gicas, microbiol√≥gicas y las medidas de intervenci√≥n que permitieron el control exitoso de un brote de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de KPC-2. M√©todos El estudio se realiz√≥ en 2 periodos: el primero durante el brote, con instauraci√≥n de un protocolo de medidas de intervenci√≥n; y el segundo, de seguimiento posbrote. Se realizaron pruebas de identificaci√≥n y susceptibilidad por sistema automatizado, tamizaci√≥n de carbapenemasas por test de Hodge modificado, PCR para detecci√≥n de los genes blaKPC, blaKPC-2, NDM-1 y estudio de clonalidad por electroforesis de campos pulsados. Resultados Durante el brote, se identificaron 18 aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de KPC en 11 pacientes. Tres casos fueron confirmados como infecci√≥n intrahospitalaria. La t√©cnica de PCR revel√≥ la presencia del gen blaKPC en 21 de 22 aislamientos (pacientes y medio ambiente) y se identific√≥ la presencia de un clon con una similitud superior al 75%. En el periodo posbrote los cultivos ambientales y de b√ļsqueda de colonizados fueron negativos. Discusi√≥n Se evidenci√≥ un control exitoso del brote producido por un clon. La implementaci√≥n de un protocolo de intervenci√≥n y la monitorizaci√≥n de su cumplimiento, la comunicaci√≥n efectiva y el trabajo en equipo fueron indispensables para evitar su propagaci√≥n y evitar un comportamiento end√©mico posbrote.Art√≠culo original25-32The considerable increase in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has caused an increase in mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to describe its epidemiological and microbiological characteristics and the intervention measures that controlled an outbreak caused by K. pneumoniae-producing KPC-2 B-lactamase. Methods The study was divided into 2 periods: the first during the outbreak with the implementation of a bundle and the second a post-outbreak surveillance. We performed tests for identification and susceptibility by using an automated system, screening carbapenemases by the Modified-Hodge test, blaKPC, blaKPC-2 and NDM-1 identification by PCR and clonal relationship characterisation by PFGE. Results During the outbreak, there were 18 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae-producing KPC-2 in 11 patients. Three cases were confirmed as hospital-acquired infection. Of 22 isolates, 21 were positive to blaKPC by PCR (samples from patients and environment) and a clone was identified with a similarity of greater than 75%. During the post-outbreak surveillance, we did not find any new positive cultures from surfaces and there were no new colonisations. Discussion This was a successful control of an outbreak produced by a clone. The implementation of a bundle and a subsequent surveillance to monitor its fulfilment, effective communication and teamwork were crucial to inhibit propagation of the infection and to prevent an endemic behaviour post-outbreak

    Genome of the Avirulent Human-Infective Trypanosome‚ÄĒTrypanosoma rangeli

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    Background: Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite infecting humans and other wild and domestic mammals across Central and South America. It does not cause human disease, but it can be mistaken for the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. We have sequenced the T. rangeli genome to provide new tools for elucidating the distinct and intriguing biology of this species and the key pathways related to interaction with its arthropod and mammalian hosts.  Methodology/Principal Findings: The T. rangeli haploid genome is ,24 Mb in length, and is the smallest and least repetitive trypanosomatid genome sequenced thus far. This parasite genome has shorter subtelomeric sequences compared to those of T. cruzi and T. brucei; displays intraspecific karyotype variability and lacks minichromosomes. Of the predicted 7,613 protein coding sequences, functional annotations could be determined for 2,415, while 5,043 are hypothetical proteins, some with evidence of protein expression. 7,101 genes (93%) are shared with other trypanosomatids that infect humans. An ortholog of the dcl2 gene involved in the T. brucei RNAi pathway was found in T. rangeli, but the RNAi machinery is non-functional since the other genes in this pathway are pseudogenized. T. rangeli is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, a phenotype that may be explained by a smaller number of anti-oxidant defense enzymes and heatshock proteins.  Conclusions/Significance: Phylogenetic comparison of nuclear and mitochondrial genes indicates that T. rangeli and T. cruzi are equidistant from T. brucei. In addition to revealing new aspects of trypanosome co-evolution within the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, comparative genomic analysis with pathogenic trypanosomatids provides valuable new information that can be further explored with the aim of developing better diagnostic tools and/or therapeutic targets

    Anti-neoplastic drugs increase caveolin-1-dependent migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells

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    Indexación: Scopus.Expression of the scaffolding protein Caveolin-1 (CAV1) enhances migration and invasion of metastatic cancer cells. Yet, CAV1 also functions as a tumor suppressor in early stages of cancer, where expression is suppressed by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, we sought to identify stimuli/mechanisms that revert epigenetic CAV1 silencing in cancer cells and evaluate how this affects their metastatic potential. We reasoned that restricted tissue availability of anti-neoplastic drugs during chemotherapy might expose cancer cells to sub-therapeutic concentrations, which activate signaling pathways and the expression of CAV1 to favor the acquisition of more aggressive traits. Here, we used in vitro [2D, invasion] and in vivo (metastasis) assays, as well as genetic and biochemical approaches to address this question. Colon and breast cancer cells were identified where CAV1 levels were low due to epigenetic suppression and could be reverted by treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5'-azacytidine. Exposure of these cells to anti-neoplastic drugs for short periods of time (24-48 h) increased CAV1 expression through ROS production and MEK/ERK activation. In colon cancer cells, increased CAV1 expression enhanced migration and invasion in vitro via pathways requiring Src-family kinases, as well as Rac-1 activity. Finally, elevated CAV1 expression in colon cancer cells following exposure in vitro to sub-cytotoxic drug concentrations increased their metastatic potential in vivo. Therefore exposure of cancer cells to anti-neoplastic drugs at non-lethal drug concentrations induces signaling events and changes in transcription that favor CAV1-dependent migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, this may occur in the absence of selection for drug-resistance.http://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=22955&path[]=7243
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