131 research outputs found

    Refinement of a Depth Averaged Flow Model in Curved Channel in Generalized Curvilinear Coordinate System

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    Source: ICHE Conference Archive - https://mdi-de.baw.de/icheArchiv

    Numerical simulation of river channel processes with bank erosion in steep curved channel

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    River morphodynamics and sediment transportRiver morphology and morphodynamic

    Characterization of IgA response among women with incident HPV 16 infection

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    AbstractPrevious studies have characterized the prevalence and duration of serum IgG antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) in a well-studied cohort of college women, using viruslike particle- (VLP) based ELISAs. In this study IgA antibodies in cervical secretions and sera were examined using a newly developed capsomer-based ELISA and the patterns observed for serum IgG, serum IgA, and cervical IgA antibodies were compared. The median time to antibody detection from the first detection of HPV 16 DNA was 10.5 months for IgA in cervical secretions and 19.1 months for serum IgA. Serum IgA antibody conversion was observed less frequently and occurred later than IgA conversion in cervical secretions (P = 0.011) or serum IgG conversion (P = 0.051). The median time to antibody reversion, following seroconversion, was 12.0 months for IgA in cervical secretions and 13.6 months for serum IgA, whereas approximately 20% of women with serum IgG antibodies reverted within 36 months. Thus, the duration of IgA in cervical secretions and sera was shorter than the duration of serum IgG (P = 0.007 and 0.001)

    Spectral evolution of GRB 060904A observed with Swift and Suzaku -- Possibility of Inefficient Electron Acceleration

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    We observed an X-ray afterglow of GRB 060904A with the Swift and Suzaku satellites. We found rapid spectral softening during both the prompt tail phase and the decline phase of an X-ray flare in the BAT and XRT data. The observed spectra were fit by power-law photon indices which rapidly changed from Γ=1.510.03+0.04\Gamma = 1.51^{+0.04}_{-0.03} to Γ=5.300.59+0.69\Gamma = 5.30^{+0.69}_{-0.59} within a few hundred seconds in the prompt tail. This is one of the steepest X-ray spectra ever observed, making it quite difficult to explain by simple electron acceleration and synchrotron radiation. Then, we applied an alternative spectral fitting using a broken power-law with exponential cutoff (BPEC) model. It is valid to consider the situation that the cutoff energy is equivalent to the synchrotron frequency of the maximum energy electrons in their energy distribution. Since the spectral cutoff appears in the soft X-ray band, we conclude the electron acceleration has been inefficient in the internal shocks of GRB 060904A. These cutoff spectra suddenly disappeared at the transition time from the prompt tail phase to the shallow decay one. After that, typical afterglow spectra with the photon indices of 2.0 are continuously and preciously monitored by both XRT and Suzaku/XIS up to 1 day since the burst trigger time. We could successfully trace the temporal history of two characteristic break energies (peak energy and cutoff energy) and they show the time dependence of t3t4\propto t^{-3} \sim t^{-4} while the following afterglow spectra are quite stable. This fact indicates that the emitting material of prompt tail is due to completely different dynamics from the shallow decay component. Therefore we conclude the emission sites of two distinct phenomena obviously differ from each other.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ (Suzaku 2nd Special Issue

    Can we live on a D-brane? -- Effective theory on a self-gravitating D-brane --

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    We consider a D-brane coupled with gravity in type IIB supergravity on S^5 and derive the effective theory on the D-brane in two different ways, that is, holographic and geometrical projection methods. We find that the effective equations on the brane obtained by these methods coincide. The theory on the D-brane described by the Born-Infeld action is not like Einstein-Maxwell theory in the lower order of the gradient expansion, i.e., the Maxwell field does not appear in the theory. Thus the careful analysis and statement for cosmology on self-gravitating D-brane should be demanded in realistic models.Comment: 13 pages, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Targeted reversion of induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with human cleidocranial dysplasia improves bone regeneration in a rat calvarial bone defect model

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    BackgroundRunt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) haploinsufficiency causes cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) which is characterized by supernumerary teeth, short stature, clavicular dysplasia, and osteoporosis. At present, as a therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation therapy is performed in addition to drug therapy. However, MSC-based therapy for osteoporosis in CCD patients is difficult due to a reduction in the ability of MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts resulting from impaired RUNX2 function. Here, we investigated whether induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) properly differentiate into osteoblasts after repairing the RUNX2 mutation in iPSCs derived from CCD patients to establish normal iPSCs, and whether engraftment of osteoblasts derived from properly reverted iPSCs results in better regeneration in immunodeficient rat calvarial bone defect models.MethodsTwo cases of CCD patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (CCD-iPSCs) were generated using retroviral vectors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC) or a Sendai virus SeVdp vector (KOSM302L). Reverted iPSCs were established using programmable nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas-derived RNA-guided endonucleases, to correct mutations in CCD-iPSCs. The mRNA expressions of osteoblast-specific markers were analyzed using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. iPSCs-derived osteoblasts were transplanted into rat calvarial bone defects, and bone regeneration was evaluated using microcomputed tomography analysis and histological analysis.ResultsMutation analysis showed that both contained nonsense mutations: one at the very beginning of exon 1 and the other at the initial position of the nuclear matrix-targeting signal. The osteoblasts derived from CCD-iPSCs (CCD-OBs) expressed low levels of several osteoblast differentiation markers, and transplantation of these osteoblasts into calvarial bone defects created in rats with severe combined immunodeficiency showed poor regeneration. However, reverted iPSCs improved the abnormal osteoblast differentiation which resulted in much better engraftment into the rat calvarial bone defect.ConclusionsTaken together, these results demonstrate that patient-specific iPSC technology can not only provide a useful disease model to elucidate the role of RUNX2 in osteoblastic differentiation but also raises the tantalizing prospect that reverted iPSCs might provide a practical medical treatment for CCD

    Feasibility study of immediate pharyngeal cooling initiation in cardiac arrest patients after arrival at the emergency room

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    AIM: Cooling the pharynx and upper oesophagus would be more advantageous for rapid induction of therapeutic hypothermia since the carotid arteries run in their vicinity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pharyngeal cooling on brain temperature and the safety and feasibility for patients under resuscitation. METHODS: Witnessed non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients (n=108) were randomized to receive standard care with (n=53) or without pharyngeal cooling (n=55). In the emergency room, pharyngeal cooling was initiated before or shortly after return of spontaneous circulation by perfusing physiological saline (5 °C) into a pharyngeal cuff for 120 min. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in tympanic temperature at 40 min after arrival (P=0.02) with a maximum difference between the groups at 120 min (32.9 ± 1.2°C, pharyngeal cooling group vs. 34.1 ± 1.3°C, control group; P<0.001). The return of spontaneous circulation (70% vs. 65%, P=0.63) and rearrest (38% vs. 47%, P=0.45) rates were not significantly different based on the initiation of pharyngeal cooling. No post-treatment mechanical or cold-related injury was observed on the pharyngeal epithelium by macroscopic observation. The thrombocytopaenia incidence was lower in the pharyngeal cooling group (P=0.001) during the 3-day period after arrival. The cumulative survival rate at 1 month was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of pharyngeal cooling before or immediately after the return of spontaneous circulation is safe and feasible. Pharyngeal cooling can rapidly decrease tympanic temperature without adverse effects on circulation or the pharyngeal epithelium

    Monocyte or white blood cell counts and β<sub>2</sub> microglobulin predict the durable efficacy of daratumumab with lenalidomide

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    BACKGROUND: Daratumumab is one of the most widely used treatments for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, not all patients achieve a lasting therapeutic response with daratumumab. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that a durable response to daratumumab could be predicted by the balance between the MM tumor burden and host immune status. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study using the real-world data in the Kansai Myeloma Forum (KMF) database. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 324 relapsed/refractory MM patients who were treated with daratumumab in the KMF database. RESULTS: In this study, 196 patients were treated with daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (DLd) regimen and 128 patients were treated with daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (DBd) regimen. The median age at treatment, number of prior treatment regimens and time-to-next-treatment (TTNT) were 68, 4 and 8.02 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that the TTNT under the DLd regimen was longer with either higher monocyte counts (analysis 1), higher white blood cell (WBC) counts (analysis 2), lower β2 microglobulin (B2MG < 5.5 mg/L) or fewer prior regimens (<4). No parameters were correlated with TTNT under the DBd regimen. CONCLUSION: We propose a simple scoring model to predict a durable effect of the DLd regimen by classifying patients into three categories based on either monocyte counts (0 points for ⩾200/μl; 1 point for <200/μl) or WBC counts (0 points for ⩾3500/μl; 1 point for <3500/μl) plus B2MG (0 points for <5.5 mg/L; 1 point for ⩾5.5 mg/L). Patients with a score of 0 showed significantly longer TTNT and significantly better survival compared to those with a score of 1 or 2 (both p < 0.001). To confirm this concept, our results will need to be validated in other cohorts
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