109 research outputs found

    A Complete Survey of the Central Molecular Zone in NH3

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    We present a map of the major part of the central molecular zone (CMZ) of simultaneous observations in the NH3 (J,K) = (1,1) and (2,2) lines using the Kagoshima 6-m telescope. The mapped area is -1.000 < l < 1.625 deg, -0.375 < b < +0.250 deg. The kinetic temperatures derived from the (2,2) to (1,1) intensity ratios are 20--80 K or exceed 80 K. The gases corresponding to temperature of 20--80 K and > 80 K contain 75% and 25% of the total NH3 flux, respectively. These temperatures indicate that the dense molecular gas in the CMZ is dominated by gas that is warmer than the majority of the dust present there. A comparison with the CO survey by Sawada et al. (2001) shows that the NH3 emitting region is surrounded by a high pressure region on the l-v plane. Although NH3 emission traces dense gas, it is not extended into a high pressure region. Therefore, the high pressure region is less dense and has to be hotter. This indicates that the molecular cloud complex in the Galactic center region has a ``core'' of dense and warm clouds which are traced by the NH3 emission, and an ``envelope'' of less dense and hotter gas clouds. Besides heating by ambipolar diffusion, the hot plasma gas emitting the X-ray emission may heat the hot ``envelope''.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figures, accepted for PAS

    NH3 in the Galactic Center is formed in Cool Conditions

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    It is an open question why the temperature of molecular gas in the Galactic center region is higher than that of dust. To address this problem, we made simultaneous observations in the NH_3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the central molecular zone (CMZ) using the Kagoshima 6 m telescope. The ortho-to-para ratio of NH_3 molecules in the CMZ is 1.5--3.5 at most observed area. This ratio is higher than the statistical equilibrium value, and suggests that the formation temperature of NH_3 is 11--20 K. This temperature is similar to the dust temperature estimated from the submillimeter and infrared continuum. This result suggests that the NH_3 molecules in the CMZ were produced on dust grains with the currently observed temperature (11--20 K), and they were released into the gas phase by supernova shocks or collisions of dust particles. The discrepancy between warm molecular gas and cold dust can be explained by the transient heating of the interstellar media in the CMZ approximately 10^5 years ago when the NH_3 molecules were released from the dust.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figures, accepted for PAS

    A collimated jet and an infalling-rotating disk in G192.16-3.84 traced by H2O maser emission

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    We report H2O masers associated with the massive-star forming region G192.16-3.84 observed with the new Japan VLBI network at three epochs spanned for two months, which have revealed the three-dimensional kinematical structure of the whole \h2o maser region in G192.16-3.84, containing two young stellar objects separated by ~1200 AU. The maser spatio-kinematical structure has well persisted since previous observations, in which the masers are expected to be associated with a highly-collimated bipolar jet and an infalling-rotating disk in the northern and southern clusters of H2O maser features, respectively. We estimated a jet expansion speed of ~100 km/s and re-estimated a dynamical age of the whole jet to be 5.6x10^4 yrs. We have investigated the spatial distribution of Doppler velocities during the previous and present observations and relative proper motions of H2O maser features in the southern cluster, and a relative bulk motion between the two maser clusters. They are well explained by a model of an infalling-rotating disk with a radius of ~1000 AU and a central stellar mass of 5-10 M_sun, rather than by a model of a bipolar jet perpendicular to the observed CO outflow. Based on the derived H2O maser spatio-kinematical parameters, we discuss the formation mechanism of the massive young stellar objects and the outflow development in G192.16-3.84.Comment: 30 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables, to be published in the Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan issued on 2006 October 2

    3-D Kinematics of Water Masers in the W51A Region

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    We report proper motion measurements of water masers in the massive-star forming region W51A and the analyses of the 3-D kinematics of the masers in three maser clusters of W51A (W51 North, Main, and South). In W~51 North, we found a clear expanding flow that has an expansion velocity of ~70 km/s and indicates deceleration. The originating point of the flow coincides within 0.1 as with a silicon-monoxide maser source near the HII region W~51d. In W51 Main, no systematic motion was found in the whole velocity range (158 km/s =< V(lsr) =< -58 km/s) although a stream motion was reported previously in a limited range of the Doppler velocity (54 km/s =< V(lsr) =< 68 kms). Multiple driving sources of outflows are thought to explain the kinematics of W51 Main. In W51 South, an expansion motion like a bipolar flow was marginally visible. Analyses based on diagonalization of the variance-covariance matrix of maser velocity vectors demonstrate that the maser kinematics in W51 North and Main are significantly tri-axially asymmetric. We estimated a distance to W51 North to be 6.1 +/- 1.3 kpc on the basis of the model fitting method adopting a radially expanding flow.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, 8 tables, appear in the NRO report No. 564 (ftp://ftp.nro.nao.ac.jp/nroreport/PASJ-W51.pdf) and will appear in Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, Vol. 54, No. 5 (10/25 issue

    Propagation of Highly Efficient Star Formation in NGC 7000

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    We surveyed the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of NH3 and the H2O maser toward the molecular cloud L935 in the extended HII region NGC 7000 with an angular resolution of 1.6' using the Kashima 34-m telescope. We found five clumps in the NH3 emission with a size of 0.2--1 pc and mass of 9--452 M_sun. The molecular gas in these clumps has a similar gas kinetic temperature of 11--15 K and a line width of 1--2 km/s. However, they have different star formation activities such as the concentration of T-Tauri type stars and the association of H2O maser sources. We found that these star formation activities are related to the geometry of the HII region. The clump associated with the T-Tauri type star cluster has a high star formation efficiency of 36--62%. This clump is located near the boundary of the HII region and molecular cloud. Therefore, we suggest that the star formation efficiency increases because of the triggered star formation.Comment: 19 pages, 15 figures, accepted for PASJ Vol.63 No.
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