8 research outputs found

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus): Nutrient profiling using HPLC and UV-spectroscopic techniques.

    Get PDF
    Food insecurity and undernourishment constitute a major challenge in Africa and the world at large. To meet key nutritional targets and tackle the menace of undernourishment, we need to exploit available but underutilised food crops. A common underutilised food crop with the potential to improve daily nutrition is tiger nut. This potential is evidenced in the number of essential amino acids detected, which constitute 74.425% of the entire amino acids detected, in addition to important minerals and vitamins. The nutritional composition of the yellow variety of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) was determined using the standard methods of high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-spectroscopy. Ten amino acids were identified and quantified, including six essential amino acids, of which valine had the highest concentration (67.59 μg/100 g), followed by leucine (3.019 μg/100 g), phenylalanine (1.767 μg/100 g), lysine (0.946 μg/100 g), histidine (1.048 μg/100 g) and tryptophan (0.055 μg/100 g). The other amino acids were proline (24.124 μg/100 g), cysteine (1.269 μg/100 g), glycine (0.024 μg/100 g), and glutamine (0.022 μg/100 g). Monosaccharides detected were ribose (41.76%), glucose (21.52%), sedoheptulose (17.94%), fructose (4.566%), rhamnose (1.78%) and mannose (1.58%), whilst disaccharides detected were sucrose (87.66%) and maltose (11.39%). Mineral concentrations were K 144.80 ± 1.10 mg/100 g, Ca 94.39 ± 0.02 mg/100 g, Na 83.92 ± 0.04 mg/100 g, Fe 19.36 ± 0.54 mg/100 g, Mg 17.63±0.13 mg/100 g, Cu 13.28±0.05 mg/100 g and Zn 5.18±0.01 mg/100 g Vitamins A, B2, C and E were detected and quantified as 53.93±1.03, 7.61±1.20, 31.70±1.25 and 128.75±0.74 μg/100 g, respectively. The chemical and nutritional properties of the yellow variety of tiger nut suggest that it is rich in essential amino acids, minerals, and some vitamins. Hence, it should be recommended to persons with nutritional deficiencies as it is cheap and available all year round. Significance:• The nutritional composition of the yellow tiger nut will assist in meeting the recommended daily intake of essential amino acids, monosaccharides,  disaccharides, minerals, and vitamins, thus contributing towards solving the challenge of food insecurity and malnutrition, particularly in the African sub-region.• The rich concentration of these nutrients could be harnessed in the biofortification of food materials known to be deficient in one nutrient or another.• These important attributes of tiger nut, if harnessed, will add value to this underutilised crop and enhance the economic livelihood of the local farmers

    Effects of ingested crude oil contaminated diets on antioxidant enzyme and lipid profile in Wistar albino rat

    Get PDF
    In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered crude oil  contaminated diet on some biochemical parameters of wistar rat. Twenty four (24) wistar rats weighing between 125-180g were randomly grouped into four (4) of six animals each. Each group was fed with different concentrations of crude oil contaminated diet for 21days. At the end of each week, blood sample (2ml) was drawn from the median cantus vein of the eyes of the rats with the aid of a capillary tube and the plasma samples prepared for the biochemical tests. Also, one animal from each group was sacrificed and dissected every week; their livers were collected, weighed, washed with normal saline and later homogenized in a mortar and the isolate used for biochemical analysis. The results obtained showed the there was an increase in the weight of wet liver, lipid peroxidation and plasma protein concentration. Similarly, a time dependent increase in cholesterol concentration was obtained, with a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean body weight and  percentage inhibition of superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that there was a negative alteration of the biochemical parameters examined which could have been induced by the contaminated feed they consumed.Keywords: crude oil, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol concentration, albino rat

    Bioinformatic characterization of a triacylglycerol lipase produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from the decaying seed of Cucumeropsis mannii

    Get PDF
    Lipases are enzymes of industrial importance responsible for the hydrolysis of ester bonds of triglycerides. A lipolytic fungus was isolated and subsequently identified based on the ITS sequence analysis as putative Aspergillus flavus with accession number LC424503. The gene coding for extracellular triacylglycerol lipase was isolated from Aspergillus flavus species, sequenced, and characterised using bioinformatics tools. An open reading frame of 420 amino acid sequence was obtained and designated as Aspergillus flavus lipase (AFL) sequence. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with other lipases revealed the presence GHSLG sequence which is the lipase consensus sequence Gly-X1-Ser-X2-Gly indicating that it a classical lipase. A catalytic active site lid domain composed of TYITDTIIDLS amino acids sequence was also revealed. This lid protects the active site, control the catalytic activity and substrate selectivity in lipases. The 3-Dimensional structural model shared 34.08% sequence identity with a lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica covering 272 amino acid residues of the template model. A search of the lipase engineering database using AFL sequence revealed that it belongs to the class GX-lipase, superfamily abH23 and homologous family abH23.02, molecular weight and isoelectric point values of 46.95 KDa and 5.7, respectively. N-glycosylation sites were predicted at residues 164, 236 and 333, with potentials of 0.7250, 0.7037 and 0.7048, respectively. O-glycosylation sites were predicted at residues 355, 358, 360 and 366. A signal sequence of 37 amino acids was revealed at the N-terminal of the polypeptide. This is a short peptide sequence that marks a protein for transport across the cell membrane and indicates that AFL is an extracellular lipase. The findings on the structural and molecular properties of Aspergillus flavus lipase in this work will be crucial in future studies aiming at engineering the enzyme for biotechnology applications

    Quantification of Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Widely Consumed Nigerian Food Crops Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)

    No full text
    More still needs to be learned regards the relative contamination of heavy metals and pesticide residues, particularly those found in widely consumed Nigerian food crops like cereals, vegetables, and tubers. In this current study, the heavy metals and pesticide residues detectable in widely consumed Nigerian food crops were respectively quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and gas chromatography (GC). Specifically, the widely consumed Nigerian food crops included cereals (rice, millet, and maize), legume (soybean), tubers (yam and cassava), as well as leaf (fluted pumpkin, Amaranthus leaf, waterleaf, and scent leaf) and fruit vegetables (okro, cucumber, carrot, and watermelon). Results showed that the detected heavy metals included arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni), whereas the pesticide residues included Aldrin, Carbofuran, g-chlordane, Chlorpyrifos, DichloroBiphenyl, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Dichlorvos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Isopropylamine, Lindane, t-nonachlor, and Profenofos. Across the studied food crops, the concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides were varied, with different trends as they largely fell below the established maximum permissible limits, and with some exceptions. Our findings suggest there could be a somewhat gradual decline in the concentration of the heavy metals and pesticide residues of these studied food crops when compared to previously published reports specific to Nigeria. To help substantiate this observation and supplement existing information, further investigations are required into the concentration of these heavy metals and pesticide residues specific to these studied food crops at other parts of the country

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus): Nutrient profiling using HPLC and UV-spectroscopic techniques

    Get PDF
    Food insecurity and undernourishment constitute a major challenge in Africa and the world at large. To meet key nutritional targets and tackle the menace of undernourishment, we need to exploit available but underutilised food crops. A common underutilised food crop with the potential to improve daily nutrition is tiger nut. This potential is evidenced in the number of essential amino acids detected, which constitute 74.425% of the entire amino acids detected, in addition to important minerals and vitamins. The nutritional composition of the yellow variety of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) was determined using the standard methods of high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-spectroscopy. Ten amino acids were identified and quantified, including six essential amino acids, of which valine had the highest concentration (67.59 μg/100 g), followed by leucine (3.019 μg/100 g), phenylalanine (1.767 μg/100 g), lysine (0.946 μg/100 g), histidine (1.048 μg/100 g) and tryptophan (0.055 μg/100 g). The other amino acids were proline (24.124 μg/100 g), cysteine (1.269 μg/100 g), glycine (0.024 μg/100 g), and glutamine (0.022 μg/100 g). Monosaccharides detected were ribose (41.76%), glucose (21.52%), sedoheptulose (17.94%), fructose (4.566%), rhamnose (1.78%) and mannose (1.58%), whilst disaccharides detected were sucrose (87.66%) and maltose (11.39%). Mineral concentrations were K 144.80 ± 1.10 mg/100 g, Ca 94.39 ± 0.02 mg/100 g, Na 83.92 ± 0.04 mg/100 g, Fe 19.36 ± 0.54 mg/100 g, Mg 17.63±0.13 mg/100 g, Cu 13.28±0.05 mg/100 g and Zn 5.18±0.01 mg/100 g Vitamins A, B2, C and E were detected and quantified as 53.93±1.03, 7.61±1.20, 31.70±1.25 and 128.75±0.74 μg/100 g, respectively. The chemical and nutritional properties of the yellow variety of tiger nut suggest that it is rich in essential amino acids, minerals, and some vitamins. Hence, it should be recommended to persons with nutritional deficiencies as it is cheap and available all year round. Significance: The nutritional composition of the yellow tiger nut will assist in meeting the recommended daily intake of essential amino acids, monosaccharides, disaccharides, minerals, and vitamins, thus contributing towards solving the challenge of food insecurity and malnutrition, particularly in the African sub-region. The rich concentration of these nutrients could be harnessed in the biofortification of food materials known to be deficient in one nutrient or another. These important attributes of tiger nut, if harnessed, will add value to this underutilised crop and enhance the economic livelihood of the local farmers

    Biodiesel potential of Cucumeropsis mannii (white melon) seed oil: A neglected and underutilized resource in Nigeria

    Get PDF
    A major challenge in the biodiesel industry is the availability of high-quality vegetable oil feedstocks. Thus, there is a continuous search for quality biodiesel feedstock whose production will trigger economic impact on the agricultural sector, minimize land degradation and without significant disruption to the food chain. In this work, we extracted and analysed oil from neglected and underutilized Cucumeropsis mannii seeds for their potential in biodiesel production. The oil content of C. mannii seed was 40.8 ± 0.56%. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of 47.0% saturated fatty (predominantly palmitic acid, stearic acid) and 53.0% of unsaturated fatty acids (predominantly oleic, linoleic and erucic acids). The physicochemical properties were determined and values were as follows: iodine value (111.07 ± 0.15 g/100 g), saponification value (192.03 ± 0.37 mg/kg of oil), peroxide value (2.60 ± 0.10 meq/kg), acid value (4.20 ± 0.02 mgKOH/g) free fatty acid (2.51 ± 0.02%), relative density (0.93 ± 0.02), the refractive index at 28 °C (1.46 ± 0.04) and viscosity at 30 °C (3.00 ± 0.10 mm2/s). The fuel properties namely, cloud point, pour point, flash point and caloric value were determined and the values were 3.03 ± 0.11 °C, 1.00 ± 0.10 °C, 279.04 ± 0.99 °C and 31.10 ± 0.11 MJ/kg, respectively. In addition, the protein content of the defatted seed was found to be 47.4 ± 0.61 g/100 g. The defatted protein-rich cakes can be upgraded as a food additive; thus the C. mannii seed oil can serve as biodiesel feedstock without altering the food chain. These characteristics demonstrate the potential of C. mannii oil as a high-quality feedstock for biodiesel production. We envisage that its utilization as biodiesel feedstock will improve the market value of these seeds, thus supporting the economic development of local farmers in rural areas

    Quantification of Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Widely Consumed Nigerian Food Crops Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)

    No full text
    More still needs to be learned regards the relative contamination of heavy metals and pesticide residues, particularly those found in widely consumed Nigerian food crops like cereals, vegetables, and tubers. In this current study, the heavy metals and pesticide residues detectable in widely consumed Nigerian food crops were respectively quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and gas chromatography (GC). Specifically, the widely consumed Nigerian food crops included cereals (rice, millet, and maize), legume (soybean), tubers (yam and cassava), as well as leaf (fluted pumpkin, Amaranthus leaf, waterleaf, and scent leaf) and fruit vegetables (okro, cucumber, carrot, and watermelon). Results showed that the detected heavy metals included arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni), whereas the pesticide residues included Aldrin, Carbofuran, g-chlordane, Chlorpyrifos, DichloroBiphenyl, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Dichlorvos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Isopropylamine, Lindane, t-nonachlor, and Profenofos. Across the studied food crops, the concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides were varied, with different trends as they largely fell below the established maximum permissible limits, and with some exceptions. Our findings suggest there could be a somewhat gradual decline in the concentration of the heavy metals and pesticide residues of these studied food crops when compared to previously published reports specific to Nigeria. To help substantiate this observation and supplement existing information, further investigations are required into the concentration of these heavy metals and pesticide residues specific to these studied food crops at other parts of the country

    An evaluation of innovative community-based approaches and systematic tuberculosis screening to improve tuberculosis case detection in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    No full text
    Background: National tuberculosis (TB) programmes globally rely heavily on passive case finding for detecting TB in the community as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). TB case detection is low in Nigeria despite improvement in TB services and coverage. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of an active case-finding intervention utilizing community-based approaches and targeted systematic TB screening in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was done. The analysis was performed using Epi Info. Results: Using community-based and health-facility-based systematic screening strategies, 218,751 persons were screened, with 19.7% of them being presumptive TB cases. Among these, 23,729 (55.1%) submitted sputum samples for microscopy, and 764 (3.2%) had smear-positive TB. In addition, 683 individuals were diagnosed with other forms of TB using X-ray and clinical evaluation giving a total of 1447 all forms of TB cases. The overall number needed to screen (NNS) to find one person with all forms of TB through the project was 151. The NNS was 53 for general outpatients, 88 through contact tracing, and 110 among HIV-infected persons. Conclusions: Active case-finding strategies achieved good yields though early loss to follow-up was high. Active case finding is recommended for integration into national TB control policy and practice
    corecore