651 research outputs found

    When God Attacks: Using Mythology and Lament to Understand Exodus 4:24-26

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    Changing Winters and the Vernal Window in Northwestern Wyoming

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    The timing of snowmelt and the onset of spring is changing in the Mountain West of the United States. The period between snow disappearance and vegetation green-up, known as the vernal window, is also changing, with implications for ecohydrology, the regional water supply, and the economy. Here, I present the first detailed analysis of the vernal window in the Mountain West at the ecosystem scale, focusing specifically on northwestern Wyoming in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). I used in-situ and satellite data to address four objectives: 1) to understand how winter intensity and duration are changing, 2) to understand when and in what order springtime transitions occur, 3) to understand how these transitions and the lags between them (including the vernal window) might be changing, and 4) to understand the relationship between winter intensity and springtime transitions and lags, including the vernal window. I found that winters have become less intense, with significantly warmer temperatures during late winter and significantly earlier snow disappearance over the past six decades, a finding that may contribute to changes in water availability if the trend continues. Further, I found that some springtime transitions occur in different orders at different elevations, and that vegetation often greens up before snow disappears at high elevations in the study area, differing from findings in the eastern U.S. There were no significant trends in springtime transition timing or lag lengths over time, potentially due to the short period of record from which I drew observations. Finally, despite trends in late winter warming and earlier snow disappearance, there were no relationships between winter intensity indicators and snow disappearance date, vegetation green up, spring discharge, or vernal window length. Soil thaw timing did show a strong positive relationship with winter intensity

    Classification of Coastal Communities Reporting Commercial Fish Landings in the U.S. Northeast Region: Developing and Testing a Methodology

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    The National Marine Fisheries Service is required by law to conduct social impact assessments of communities impacted by fishery management plans. To facilitate this process, we developed a technique for grouping communities based on common sociocultural attributes. Multivariate data reduction techniques (e.g. principal component analyses, cluster analyses) were used to classify Northeast U.S. fishing communities based on census and fisheries data. The comparisons indicate that the clusters represent real groupings that can be verified with the profiles. We then selected communities representative of different values on these multivariate dimensions for in-depth analysis. The derived clusters are then compared based on more detailed data from fishing community profiles. Ground-truthing (e.g. visiting the communities and collecting primary information) a sample of communities from three clusters (two overlapping geographically) indicates that the more remote techniques are sufficient for typing the communities for further in-depth analyses. The in-depth analyses provide additional important information which we contend is representative of all communities within the cluster

    Abundance and Seasonal Occurrence of Psorophora columbiae in a Northeast Arkansas Ricefield Community

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    Increased population levels of the dark ricefield mosquito, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab), have been shown to be associated with rice cultivation in Arkansas and several other states. Four standard New Jersey light traps were operated daily between May 30 and October 2 of 1981 and 1982 to determine the relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of this species in NE Arkansas. The effect of trap distance from nearby rice on the number of adult P. columbiae collected was assessed by comparing weekly totals from 2 traps located within 0.9 km of rice fields with totals from 2 traps situated beyond 1.2 km. A total of 68,155 mosquitoes representing five genera was trapped during this study. Of this number, 45,760 (67.1% of all mosquitos captured) were P. columbiae. Female adults comprised 98.8% of the trapped ricefield mosquitoes. The peak period of abundance for this species was found to occur between mid-July and late August and was closely associated with area rice-culture practices. The capture of more than 95.0% of all P. columbiae adults within 0.9 km of rice fields confirmed the reported short flight range of this species

    Preclinical Analysis of JAA-F11, a Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Antibody via Immunohistochemistry and In Vivo Imaging.

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    The tumor specificity of JAA-F11, a novel monoclonal antibody specific for the Thomsen-Friedenreich cancer antigen (TF-Ag-alpha linked), has been comprehensively studied by in vitro immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of human tumor and normal tissue microarrays and in vivo biodistribution and imaging by micro-positron emission tomography imaging in breast and lung tumor models in mice. The IHC analysis detailed herein is the comprehensive biological analysis of the tumor specificity of JAA-F11 antibody performed as JAA-F11 is progressing towards preclinical safety testing and clinical trials. Wide tumor reactivity of JAA-F11, relative to the matched mouse IgG3 (control), was observed in 85% of 1269 cases of breast, lung, prostate, colon, bladder, and ovarian cancer. Staining on tissues from breast cancer cases was similar regardless of hormonal or Her2 status, and this is particularly important in finding a target on the currently untargetable triple-negative breast cancer subtype. Humanization of JAA-F11 was recently carried out as explained in a companion paper "Humanization of JAA-F11, a Highly Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Pancarcinoma Antibody and In Vitro Efficacy Analysis" (Neoplasia 19: 716-733, 2017), and it was confirmed that humanization did not affect chemical specificity. IHC studies with humanized JAA-F11 showed similar binding to human breast tumor tissues. In vivo imaging and biodistribution studies in a mouse syngeneic breast cancer model and in a mouse-human xenograft lung cancer model with humanized 124I- JAA-F11 construct confirmed in vitro tumor reactivity and specificity. In conclusion, the tumor reactivity of JAA-F11 supports the continued development of JAA-F11 as a targeted cancer therapeutic for multiple cancers, including those with unmet need
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