98 research outputs found

    Design & Optimization of the HV divider for JUNO 20-inch PMT

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    The Jiangmen Underground Observatory (JUNO) is a 20-kton liquid scintillator detector that employs 20,000 20-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as photon sensors, with 5,000 dynode-PMTs from HAMAMATSU Photonics K.K. (HPK), and 15,000 MCP-PMTs from North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) installed in pure water. JUNO aims to provide long-lasting and the best performance operation by utilizing a high-transparency liquid scintillator, high detection efficiency PMTs, and specially designed electronics including water-proof potting for the high voltage (HV) dividers of PMTs. In this paper, we present a summary of the design and optimization of HV dividers for both types of 20-inch PMTs, which includes collection efficiency, charge resolution, HV divider current, pulse shape, and maximum amplitude restriction. We have developed and finalized four schemes of the HV divider for different scenarios, including the final version selected by JUNO. All 20,000 20-inch PMTs have successfully undergone production and burning tests.Comment: 14pages,28figure

    Check on the features of potted 20-inch PMTs with 1F3 electronics prototype at Pan-Asia

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    The Jiangmen underground neutrino observatory (JUNO) is a neutrino project with a 20-kton liquid scintillator detector located at 700-m underground. The large 20-inch PMTs are one of the crucial components of the JUNO experiment aiming to precision neutrino measurements with better than 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. The excellent energy resolution and a large fiducial volume provide many exciting opportunities for addressing important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. With the container #D at JUNO Pan-Asia PMT testing and potting station, the features of waterproof potted 20-inch PMTs were measured with JUNO 1F3 electronics prototype in waveform and charge, which are valuable for better understanding on the performance of the waterproof potted PMTs and the JUNO 1F3 electronics. In this paper, basic features of JUNO 1F3 electronics prototype run at Pan-Asia will be introduced, followed by an analysis of the waterproof potted 20-inch PMTs and a comparison with the results from commercial electronics used by the container #A and #B

    Neutrino Physics with JUNO

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    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purposeunderground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determinationof the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal. It is also capable ofobserving neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, includingsupernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos,atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, as well as exotic searches such asnucleon decays, dark matter, sterile neutrinos, etc. We present the physicsmotivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for variousproposed measurements. By detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plantsat 53-km distance, JUNO will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at a 3-4sigma significance with six years of running. The measurement of antineutrinospectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the sixoscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1\%. Neutrino burst from atypical core-collapse supernova at 10 kpc would lead to ~5000inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton elasticscattering events in JUNO. Detection of DSNB would provide valuable informationon the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapsed neutrinoenergy spectrum. Geo-neutrinos can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ~400events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrinosamples. The JUNO detector is sensitive to several exotic searches, e.g. protondecay via the p‚ÜíK++őĹňČp\to K^++\bar\nu decay channel. The JUNO detector will providea unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle andastrophysics. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest tounderstanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one of the buildingblocks of our Universe

    Real-time Monitoring for the Next Core-Collapse Supernova in JUNO

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    Core-collapse supernova (CCSN) is one of the most energetic astrophysical events in the Universe. The early and prompt detection of neutrinos before (pre-SN) and during the SN burst is a unique opportunity to realize the multi-messenger observation of the CCSN events. In this work, we describe the monitoring concept and present the sensitivity of the system to the pre-SN and SN neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), which is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector under construction in South China. The real-time monitoring system is designed with both the prompt monitors on the electronic board and online monitors at the data acquisition stage, in order to ensure both the alert speed and alert coverage of progenitor stars. By assuming a false alert rate of 1 per year, this monitoring system can be sensitive to the pre-SN neutrinos up to the distance of about 1.6 (0.9) kpc and SN neutrinos up to about 370 (360) kpc for a progenitor mass of 30M‚äôM_{\odot} for the case of normal (inverted) mass ordering. The pointing ability of the CCSN is evaluated by using the accumulated event anisotropy of the inverse beta decay interactions from pre-SN or SN neutrinos, which, along with the early alert, can play important roles for the followup multi-messenger observations of the next Galactic or nearby extragalactic CCSN.Comment: 24 pages, 9 figure

    Potential of Core-Collapse Supernova Neutrino Detection at JUNO

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    JUNO is an underground neutrino observatory under construction in Jiangmen, China. It uses 20kton liquid scintillator as target, which enables it to detect supernova burst neutrinos of a large statistics for the next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) and also pre-supernova neutrinos from the nearby CCSN progenitors. All flavors of supernova burst neutrinos can be detected by JUNO via several interaction channels, including inverse beta decay, elastic scattering on electron and proton, interactions on C12 nuclei, etc. This retains the possibility for JUNO to reconstruct the energy spectra of supernova burst neutrinos of all flavors. The real time monitoring systems based on FPGA and DAQ are under development in JUNO, which allow prompt alert and trigger-less data acquisition of CCSN events. The alert performances of both monitoring systems have been thoroughly studied using simulations. Moreover, once a CCSN is tagged, the system can give fast characterizations, such as directionality and light curve

    Detection of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background with JUNO

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    As an underground multi-purpose neutrino detector with 20 kton liquid scintillator, Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is competitive with and complementary to the water-Cherenkov detectors on the search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB). Typical supernova models predict 2-4 events per year within the optimal observation window in the JUNO detector. The dominant background is from the neutral-current (NC) interaction of atmospheric neutrinos with 12C nuclei, which surpasses the DSNB by more than one order of magnitude. We evaluated the systematic uncertainty of NC background from the spread of a variety of data-driven models and further developed a method to determine NC background within 15\% with {\it{in}} {\it{situ}} measurements after ten years of running. Besides, the NC-like backgrounds can be effectively suppressed by the intrinsic pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities of liquid scintillators. In this talk, I will present in detail the improvements on NC background uncertainty evaluation, PSD discriminator development, and finally, the potential of DSNB sensitivity in JUNO
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