23,543 research outputs found

    Quantum corrected Langevin dynamics for adsorbates on metal surfaces interacting with hot electrons

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    We investigate the importance of including quantized initial conditions in Langevin dynamics for adsorbates interacting with a thermal reservoir of electrons. For quadratic potentials the time evolution is exactly described by a classical Langevin equation and it is shown how to rigorously obtain quantum mechanical probabilities from the classical phase space distributions resulting from the dynamics. At short time scales, classical and quasiclassical initial conditions lead to wrong results and only correctly quantized initial conditions give a close agreement with an inherently quantum mechanical master equation approach. With CO on Cu(100) as an example, we demonstrate the effect for a system with ab initio frictional tensor and potential energy surfaces and show that quantizing the initial conditions can have a large impact on both the desorption probability and the distribution of molecular vibrational states

    Tripartite and bipartite entanglement in continuous-variable tripartite systems

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    We examine one asymmetric adnd two fully symmetric Gaussian continuous-variable systems in terms of their tripartite and bipartite entanglement properties. We treat pure states and are able to find analytic solutions using the undepleted pump approximation for the Hamiltonian models, and standard beamsplitter relations for a model that mixes the outputs of optical parametric oscillators. Our two symmetric systems exhibit perfect tripartite correlations, but only in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing. For more realistic squeezing parameters, all three systems exhibit both tripartite and bipartite entanglement. We conclude that none of the outputs are completely analogous to either GHZ or W states, but there are parameter regions where they produce T states introduced by Adesso \etal The qualitative differences in the output states for different interaction parameters indicate that continuous-variable tripartite quantum information systems offer a versatility not found in bipartite systems.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1510.0182

    Ice shapes and the resulting drag increase for a NACA 0012 airfoil

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    Experimental measurements of the ice shapes and resulting drag increases were measured in the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The measurements were made over a large range of conditions (e.g., airspeed and temperature, drop size and liquid water content of the cloud, and the angle of attack of the airfoil). The measured drag increase did not agree with the existing correlation. Additional results were given which are helpful in understanding the ice structure and the way it forms, and in improving the ice accretion modeling theories. There are data on the ice surface roughness, on the effect of the ice shape on the local droplet catch, and on the relative importance of various parts of the ice shape on the drag increase. Experimental repeatability is also discussed

    Study of ice accretion on icing wind tunnel components

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    In a closed loop icing wind tunnel the icing cloud is simulated by introducing tiny water droplets through an array of nozzles upstream of the test section. This cloud will form ice on all tunnel components (e.g., turning vanes, inlet guide vanes, fan blades, and the heat exchanger) as the cloud flows around the tunnel. These components must have the capacity to handle their icing loads without causing significant tunnel performance degradation during the course of an evening's run. To aid in the design of these components for the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) at NASA Lewis Research Center the existing Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is used to measure icing characteristics of the IRT's components. The results from the IRT are scaled to the AWT to account for the AWT's larger components and higher velocities. The results show that from 90 to 45 percent of the total spray cloud froze out on the heat exchanger. Furthermore, the first set of turning vanes downstream of the test section, the FOD screen and the fan blades show significant ice formation. The scaling shows that the same results would occur in the AWT

    Mathematical models for cell-matrix interactions during dermal wound healing

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    This paper contains a review of our recent work on the mathematical modeling of cell interaction with extracellular matrix components during the process of dermal wound healing. The models are of partial differential equation type and allow us to investigate in detail how various mechanochemical effects may be responsible for certain wound healing disorders such as fibrocontractive and fibroproliferative diseases. We also present a model for wound healing angiogenesis. The latter has several features in common with angiogenesis during cancer tumour growth and spread so a deeper understanding of the phenomenon in the context of wound healing may also help in the treatment of certain cancers

    The construction and operation of a water tunnel in application to flow visualization studies of an oscillating airfoil

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    The water tunnel which was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center is described along with the flow field adjacent to an oscillating airfoil. The design and operational procedures of the tunnel are described in detail. Hydrogen bubble and thymol blue techniques are used to visualize the flow field. Results of the flow visualizations are presented in a series of still pictures and a high speed movie. These results show that time stall is more complicated than simple shedding from the leading edge or the trailing edge, particularly at relatively low frequency oscillations comparable to those of a helicopter blade. Therefore, any successful theory for predicting the stall loads on the helicopter blades must treat an irregular separated region rather than a discrete vortex passing over each blade surface