2,303 research outputs found

    Los Jesuitas y las reformas pombalinas. rupturas y continuidades

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    Da mesma forma que a Europa representava, na legislação pombalina, a ideia de progresso e civilização, suplantando assim todas as contradições que tal pressuposto acarreta, o ataque aos jesuítas, fora do âmbito retórico, nem sempre tinha fundamento. É sabido, por exemplo, que os membros da Companhia de Jesus não eram tão atrasados ou ignorantes como afirmava a lei. Seu ideário e suas ações, do ponto de vista político-econômico, eram bastante arrojados para o tempo, como comprovam os escritos econômicos do padre jesuíta Antônio Vieira (1608-1697), que defendia a participação dos cristãos-novos na economia portuguesa e a criação de companhias de comércio, e a administração temporal de mais de vinte aldeias do Pará e Maranhão, empregando a mão-de-obra dos indígenas, que lhe granjearam um capital e um poder temidos e cobiçados pelos habitantes daquele importante domínio lusitano. Este artigo busca mostrar até que ponto as rupturas promovidas pelas reformas pombalinas significaram um rompimento ou continuidade com relação à pedagogia jesuítica.In the same way that Europe, in the Pombaline legislation, was a representative of the idea of progress and civilization, thus superseding all contradictions which such assumption entails, the attack on the Jesuits, outside the scope of rhetoric, was not always justified. It is known, for instance, that the members of the Society of Jesus were not as backward or ignorant as the law stated. Their ideary and actions, from an economic and political viewpoint, were quite venturesome for the period, as it is proved by the economic writings of the Jesuit priest Antônio Vieira (1608-1697), who advocated for the participation of the new christians in the Portuguese economy and the creation of trading companies, and the temporal administration of more than twenty villages of Pará and Maranhão, by employing the indiginous workforce, which yielded a capital and power feared as well as coveted by the inhabitants of that important lusitanian dominion. This article aims to show to what extent the ruptures carried out by the Pombaline reforms meant a real rupture or continuity with regards to the Jesuit pedagogy.contradicciones que esta suposición conduce, el ataque a los jesuitas, fuera del ámbito retórico, no siempre tenía fundamento. Se sabe, por ejemplo, que los miembros de la Compañía de Jesús no eran tan atrasados o ignorantes como afirmaba la ley. Su ideario y sus acciones, desde el punto de vista político y económico, eran bastante atrevidos para la época, como lo demuestran los escritos económicos del padre jesuita António Vieira (1608-1697), que abogaba por la participación de los nuevos cristianos en la economía portuguesa y la creación de empresas de comercio, y la administración temporal de más de veinte aldeas de Pará y Maranhão, utilizando la mano de obra de los indígenas, que le valió capital y poder temidos y codiciados por los habitantes de ese importante dominio lusitano. En ese artículo se pretende mostrar hasta que punto las rupturas promovidas por las reformas pombalinas significaron un rompimiento o continuidad con respecto a la pedagogía jesuítica.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The Pombaline legislation and its mythology: the case of educational and linguistic reforms

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    Este artigo analisa a legislação pombalina referente ao ensino de línguas, com o objetivo de evidenciar o modo como a construção discursiva da noção de uma Europa polida e civilizada, ao contrapor-se ao alegado atraso da administração temporal e pedagógica dos Jesuítas, articula-se com uma mitologia que se apresenta como um arsenal léxico-discursivo composto de algumas palavras-chave grafadas com maiúsculas que dão sustentação à noção do «moderno», recorrendo ao mito da Idade de Ouro (Eliade, 2000), isto é, à invenção de uma tradição gloriosa do povo lusitano antes da chegada da Companhia de Jesus.This article analyses the Pombaline legislation regarding language teaching with the aim of highlighting how the discursive construction of the notion of a polished and civilized Europe, by opposing the alleged delay in the temporal and pedagogical administration of the Jesuits, articulates with a mythology that presents itself as a lexical-discursive arsenal composed of a few capitalized key-words that support the notion of «modern», resorting to the myth of the Golden Age (Elia-de, 2000), that is, to the invention of a glorious tradition of the Lusitanian people before the arrival of the Society of Jesus.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Legal Document Classification: An Application to Law Area Prediction of Petitions to Public Prosecution Service

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    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the application of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to legal documents. The use of convolutional and recurrent neural networks along with word embedding techniques have presented promising results when applied to textual classification problems, such as sentiment analysis and topic segmentation of documents. This paper proposes the use of NLP techniques for textual classification, with the purpose of categorizing the descriptions of the services provided by the Public Prosecutor's Office of the State of Paran\'a to the population in one of the areas of law covered by the institution. Our main goal is to automate the process of assigning petitions to their respective areas of law, with a consequent reduction in costs and time associated with such process while allowing the allocation of human resources to more complex tasks. In this paper, we compare different approaches to word representations in the aforementioned task: including document-term matrices and a few different word embeddings. With regards to the classification models, we evaluated three different families: linear models, boosted trees and neural networks. The best results were obtained with a combination of Word2Vec trained on a domain-specific corpus and a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture (more specifically, LSTM), leading to an accuracy of 90\% and F1-Score of 85\% in the classification of eighteen categories (law areas)

    To Open the Mouth, to Show the Tongue: Anthropophagic Gestures in Brazilian Art

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    This essay seeks to articulate a detailed reading through two anatomical selections –the mouth and tongue— in Brazilian art from the end of the 1960s. The reading is part of a shift in the matrix of Oswald de Andrade’s “Anthropophagic Manifesto,” originally published in the Revista de Antropofagia in 1928, whose interpretations spread in Brazil during the second half of the 20th century. This study mobilises elements of the manifesto and its resonance in the works of artists such as Anna Maria Maiolino, Lygia Pape, Paulo Bruscky, and Lenora de Barros

    Le Marquis de Pombal et l’invention du Brésil: coordonnées historiques

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    Este artigo busca estabelecer as coordenadas históricas para se pensar a relação entre a política econômica, cultural e linguística da governação pombalina, na segunda metade do século XVIII, e o lento processo de unificação geográfica, independência política e formação discursiva da identidade cultural e depois nacional da América portuguesa, no decorrer dos século seguinte. Para tanto, apoiados no suporte teórico da história cultural e dos estudos culturais,valemo-nos da historiografia relacionada ao período, bem como de fontes legislativas, literárias e epistolares, além de uma bibliografia atualizada sobre o tema. Nosso intento é mostrar que, para o bem e para o mal, as medidas legislativas e intervenções políticas do Marquês de Pombal, durante o período em que era o ministro do poderoso de D. José I, deram conformação ao Brasil, tal como o conhecemos hoje.This article seeks to establish the historical coordinates to think about the relationship between economic, cultural and linguistic policy from the Pombaline governance, in the second half of the eighteenth century, and the slow process of geographic unity, political independence and discursive formation of cultural identity and then national of the Portuguese America, over the next century. Therefore, supported by the theoretical basis of cultural history and cultural studies, we make use of historiography related to this period as well as legislative, literary and epistolary sources, and also an updated bibliography on the subject. Our intent is to show that, for good and for evil, the legislative and policy interventions of the Marquis of Pombal, during the period when he was the all-powerful minister of D. José I gave conformation to Brazil, such as we know today.Este artículo tiene por objeto establecer las coordinadas históricas para pensar acerca de la relación entre la política económica, cultural y lingüística de la gobernanza pombalina, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, y el lento proceso de unificación geográfica, independencia política y formación discursiva de la identidad cultural y luego nacional de la América portuguesa, en el curso de los siglos seguientes. Por eso, apoyados por el soporte teórico de la historia cultural y los estudios culturales, nos valemos de la historiografía relacionada con el período, así como fuentes legislativas, literarias y epistolares, además de una bibliografía actualizada sobre el tema. Nuestra intención es mostrar que, para bien y para mal, las medidas legislativas y las intervenciones políticas del Marqués de Pombal, durante el período en que era el todopoderoso Ministro de D. José I, dio conformación a Brasil, tal como lo conocemos hoy día.Cet article vise à établir les coordonnées historiques pour réfléchir la relation entre la politique économique, culturelle et linguistique de la gouvernance pombaline, dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle, et la lenteur du processus d’unité géographique, d’indépendance politique et de la formation discursive de l’identité culturelle et puis nationale de l’Amérique portugaise, au cours du prochain siècle. Par conséquent, soutenu par le soutien théorique de l’histoire culturelle et des études culturelles, nous faisons usage de l’historiographie liée à la période, ainsi que des sources législatives, littéraires et épistolaires, ainsi qu’une bibliographie mise à jour sur le sujet. Notre intention est de montrer que, pour le bien et pour le mal, les interventions législatives et politiques du Marquis de Pombal, au cours de la période où il était le tout-puissant ministre de D. José I, ont donné la conformation au Brésil, tels que nous connaissons aujourd’hui.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Construction of a projection spectrograph and its use in optical spectroscopy classrooms demonstrations

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    This article describes a projection spectrograph for use in optical spectroscopy classrooms demonstrations. The apparatus is based on an overhead projector and permits the visualization of several phenomena such as, light dispersion by diffraction gratings, diffraction order, optical fluorescence, continuous and discrete optical emission spectra, and light absorption by liquids and solids. A historical survey about the optical spectroscopy development is also presented
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