34 research outputs found

    A case of retroesophageal right subclavian artery, with special reference to the second intercostal artery, retroesophageal right vertebral artery, and thoracic duct

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    We report a case of retroesophageal right subclavian artery identified in a 59-year-old Japanese female during routine dissection in Nagasaki University School of Medicine. This kind of variation is relatively rare; however, reports of such cases have accumulated. We paid attention to the intersegmental arteries and above all, the second intercostal artery. On the other hand, there have been reports of a retroesophageal right vertebral artery, although such cases are extremely rare. It is considered that both retroesophageal arteries are formed by similar mechanisms. In other words, the distal part of the right dorsal aorta remained in such cases. However, in the case of a retroesophageal right vertebral artery, there might be the possibility of intercostal arteries developing into the vertebral artery, and we discuss such points here

    An Ancient Skeleton with Multiple Osteoblastic Bone Lesions Containing a Scapular Sunburst Appearance from a 5th?6th Century Grave Excavated in Oita, Japan

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    A human skeleton of a middle-aged adult male was found in a 5th-6th century Kinoue-Kodo stone coffin excavated from the southwest marginal region of the Oita plains, northeast Kyushu, Japan. The skeleton was buried respectfully in the ancient tomb, and red pigment was applied to his face after death. We report herein findings from computed tomography imaging of the skeleton and discuss the multiple osteoblastic lesions identified in the humerus, scapula, clavicle, vertebra, pelvic bones, and skull of this individual. These lesions comprised cortical bone thickening with periosteal reaction localized to the surface and osteosclerotic changes mainly observed in the trabecular structure of cancellous bone. In particular, a typical sunburst pattern was also noted on the left scapula as another characteristic lesion found in this case. By differential diagnosis, the disease suffered by this individual was most likely to be metastatic bone tumors, especially of prostate cancer. This person may have survived until many bone metastases had developed throughout his whole body

    Periarticular Osteophytes as an Appendicular Joint Stress Marker (JSM): Analysis in a Contemporary Japanese Skeletal Collection

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    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that periarticular osteophytes plays a role as a appendicular joint stress marker (JSM) which reflects the biomechanical stresses on individuals and populations. Methods: A total of 366 contemporary Japanese skeletons (231 males, 135 females) were examined closely to evaluate the periarticular osteophytes of six major joints, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle and osteophyte scores (OS) were determined using an original grading system. These scores were aggregated and analyzed statistically from some viewpoints. Results: All of the OS for the respective joints were correlated logarithmically with the age-at-death of the individuals. For 70 individuals, in whom both sides of all six joints were evaluated without missing values, the age-standardized OS were calculated. A right side dominancy was recognized in the joints of the upper extremities, shoulder and wrist joints, and the bilateral correlations were large in the three joints on the lower extremity. For the shoulder joint and the hip joint, it was inferred by some distinctions that systemic factors were relatively large. All of these six joints could be assorted by the extent of systemic and local factors on osteophytes formation. Moreover, when the age-standardized OS of all the joints was summed up, some individuals had significantly high total scores, and others had significantly low total scores; namely, all of the individuals varied greatly in their systemic predisposition for osteophytes formation. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the significance of periarticular osteophytes; the evaluating system for OS could be used to detect differences among joints and individuals. Periarticular osteophytes could be applied as an appendicular joint stress marker (JSM); by applying OS evaluating system for skeletal populations, intra-skeletal and inter-skeletal variations in biomechanical stresses throughout the lives could be clarified

    Traffic Jams Reduce Hydrolytic Efficiency of Cellulase on Cellulose Surface

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    Abstract A deeper mechanistic understanding of the saccharification of cellulosic biomass could enhance the efficiency of biofuels development. We report here the real-time visualization of crystalline cellulose degradation by individual cellulase enzymes using an advanced version of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Trichoderma reesei 2 cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) molecules were observed to slide unidirectionally along the crystalline cellulose surface, but at one point exhibited collective halting analogous to a traffic jam. Changing the crystalline polymorphic form of cellulose by an ammonia treatment increased the apparent number of accessible lanes on the crystalline surface and consequently the number of moving cellulase molecules. Treatment of this bulky crystalline cellulose simultaneously or separately with T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II (TrCel6A) resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of mobile enzyme molecules on the surface. Cellulose was completely degraded by the synergistic action between the two enzymes

    Characterization of Individuals with Sacroiliac Joint Bridging in a Skeletal Population: Analysis of Degenerative Changes in Spinal Vertebrae

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    Theaimof this study was to characterize the individualswith sacroiliac joint bridging (SIB) by analyzing the degenerative changes intheirwhole vertebral column and comparing themwith the controls.Atotal of 291modern Japanesemale skeletons,with an averageage at death of 60.8 years, were examined macroscopically. They were divided into two groups: individuals with SIB and thosewithout bridging (Non-SIB).The degenerative changes in their whole vertebral column were evaluated, and marginal osteophytescores (MOS) of the vertebral bodies and degenerative joint scores in zygapophyseal jointswere calculated. SIBwas recognized in 30individuals froma total of 291 males (10.3%).The average of age at death in SIB group was significantly higher than that in Non-SIBgroup. The values ofMOS in the thoracic spines, particularly in the anterior part of the vertebral bodies, were consecutively higherin SIB group than in Non-SIB group. Incidence of fused vertebral bodies intervertebral levels was obviously higher in SIB groupthan in Non-SIB group. SIB and marginal osteophyte formation in vertebral bodies could coexist in a skeletal population of men.Some systemic factors might act on these degenerative changes simultaneously both in sacroiliac joint and in vertebral column

    Un Caso de Fisura Horizontal Anomala y Lobulo Medio Hipoplasico del Pulmon Derecho

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    During dissection practice for medical students at Nagasaki University, a horizontal fissure and hypoplastic middle lobe were encountered in the right lung of an 81-year-old Japanese female. In a normal right lung, the horizontal fissure is situated anterior to the oblique fissure. On the contrary, in the present case, the horizontal fissure was situated posterior to the oblique fissure. We identified a small, additional lobe on the medial surface of this lung. It was situated in the medial part of the oblique fissure, and was determined to be a small hypoplastic middle lobe. As a result of the hypoplasia of the middle lobe, the original horizontal fissure may have disappeared from the anterior surface. The horizontal fissure, in this case, may be a compensatory additional fissure that developed within the inferior lobe. This horizontal fissure was incomplete, both in length and depth. The left lung was normal. This case might be very rare; however, it may aid in the understanding of normal lung development. Therefore, we report this case, including its bronchial branching and vascular distribution

    Thermodynamic Analyses of Nucleotide Binding to an Isolated Monomeric β Subunit and the α3β3γ Subcomplex of F1-ATPase

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    AbstractRotation of the γ subunit of the F1-ATPase plays an essential role in energy transduction by F1-ATPase. Hydrolysis of an ATP molecule induces a 120° step rotation that consists of an 80° substep and 40° substep. ATP binding together with ADP release causes the first 80° step rotation. Thus, nucleotide binding is very important for rotation and energy transduction by F1-ATPase. In this study, we introduced a βY341W mutation as an optical probe for nucleotide binding to catalytic sites, and a βE190Q mutation that suppresses the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). Using a mutant monomeric βY341W subunit and a mutant α3β3γ subcomplex containing the βY341W mutation with or without an additional βE190Q mutation, we examined the binding of various NTPs (i.e., ATP, GTP, and ITP) and nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs, i.e., ADP, GDP, and IDP). The affinity (1/Kd) of the nucleotides for the isolated β subunit and third catalytic site in the subcomplex was in the order ATP/ADP > GTP/GDP > ITP/IDP. We performed van’t Hoff analyses to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of nucleotide binding. For the isolated β subunit, NDPs and NTPs with the same base moiety exhibited similar ΔH0 and ΔG0 values at 25°C. The binding of nucleotides with different bases to the isolated β subunit resulted in different entropy changes. Interestingly, NDP binding to the α3β(Y341W)3γ subcomplex had similar Kd and ΔG0 values as binding to the isolated β(Y341W) subunit, but the contributions of the enthalpy term and the entropy term were very different. We discuss these results in terms of the change in the tightness of the subunit packing, which reduces the excluded volume between subunits and increases water entropy
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