2,508 research outputs found

    Relaxation in the 3D ordered CoTAC spin chain by quantum nucleation of 0D domain walls

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    We have shown that resonant quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation (QTM), until now observed only in 0D cluster systems (SMMs), occurs in the molecular Ising spin chain, CoTAC ([(CH_3)_3NH]CoCl_3 - 2H_2O) which orders as a canted 3D-antiferromagnet at T_C=4.15 K. This effect was observed around a resonant like field value of 1025 Oe. We present here measurements of the relaxation of the magnetisation as a function of time, from the zero field cooled (ZFC) antiferromagnet state and from the saturated ferromagnet state. We show that, at the resonant field, the relaxation from the saturated state occurs in a complicated process, whereas, surprisingly, in the case of the ZFC state, the relaxation is exponential.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, LT25 proceeding

    H.E.S.S. observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud

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    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 48 kpc. Despite its distance it harbours several interesting targets for TeV gamma-ray observations. The composite supernova remnant N 157B/PSR J05367-6910 was discovered by H.E.S.S. being an emitter of very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays. It is the most distant pulsar wind nebula ever detected in VHE gamma-rays. Another very exciting target is SN 1987A, the remnant of the most recent supernova explosion that occurred in the neighbourhood of the Milky Way. Models for Cosmic Ray acceleration in this remnant predict gamma-ray emission at a level detectable by H.E.S.S. but this has not been detected so far. Fermi/LAT discovered diffuse high energy (HE) gamma-ray emission from the general direction of the massive star forming region 30 Doradus but no clear evidence for emission from either N 157B or SN 1987A has been published. The part of the LMC containing these objects has been observed regularly with the H.E.S.S. telescopes since 2003. With deep observations carried out in 2010 a very good exposure of this part of the sky has been obtained. The current status of the H.E.S.S. LMC observations is reported along with new results on N 157B and SN 1987A.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, proceedings of the 32nd Internatioal Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing 201

    Hydrogelverstärkte, festkörpergestützte Lipidmembranen

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    Ant-infecting Ophiocordyceps genomes reveal a high diversity of potential behavioral manipulation genes and a possible major role for enterotoxins

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    Much can be gained from revealing the mechanisms fungal entomopathogens employ. Especially intriguing are fungal parasites that manipulate insect behavior because, presumably, they secrete a wealth of bioactive compounds. To gain more insight into their strategies, we compared the genomes of five ant-infecting Ophiocordyceps species from three species complexes. These species were collected across three continents, from five different ant species in which they induce different levels of manipulation. A considerable number of (small) secreted and pathogenicity-related proteins were only found in these ant-manipulating Ophiocordyceps species, and not in other ascomycetes. However, few of those proteins were conserved among them, suggesting that several different methods of behavior modification have evolved. This is further supported by a relatively fast evolution of previously reported candidate manipulation genes associated with biting behavior. Moreover, secondary metabolite clusters, activated during biting behavior, appeared conserved within a species complex, but not beyond. The independent co-evolution between these manipulating parasites and their respective hosts might thus have led to rather diverse strategies to alter behavior. Our data indicate that specialized, secreted enterotoxins may play a major role in one of these strategies

    Identification of Leishmania major UDP-Sugar Pyrophosphorylase Inhibitors Using Biosensor-Based Small Molecule Fragment Library Screening

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    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that is caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania, and it currently affects 12 million people worldwide. The antileishmanial therapeutic arsenal remains very limited in number and efficacy, and there is no vaccine for this parasitic disease. One pathway that has been genetically validated as an antileishmanial drug target is the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc), and its direct derivative UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). De novo biosynthesis of these two nucleotide sugars is controlled by the specific UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP). Leishmania parasites additionally express a UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP) responsible for monosaccharides salvage that is able to generate both UDP-Gal and UDP-Glc. The inactivation of the two parasite pyrophosphorylases UGP and USP, results in parasite death. The present study reports on the identification of structurally diverse scaffolds for the development of USP inhibitors by fragment library screening. Based on this screening, we selected a small set of commercially available compounds, and identified molecules that inhibit both Leishmania major USP and UGP, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration in the 100 µM range. The inhibitors were predicted to bind at allosteric regulation sites, which were validated by mutagenesis studies. This study sets the stage for the development of potent USP inhibitors

    LDA+Gutzwiller Method for Correlated Electron Systems

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    Combining the density functional theory (DFT) and the Gutzwiller variational approach, a LDA+Gutzwiller method is developed to treat the correlated electron systems from {\it ab-initio}. All variational parameters are self-consistently determined from total energy minimization. The method is computationally cheaper, yet the quasi-particle spectrum is well described through kinetic energy renormalization. It can be applied equally to the systems from weakly correlated metals to strongly correlated insulators. The calculated results for SrVO3_3, Fe, Ni and NiO, show dramatic improvement over LDA and LDA+U.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

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    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost andduringmushroomformation.The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation aremore highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics

    Market research & the ethics of big data

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    The term ‘big data’ has recently emerged to describe a range of technological and commercial trends enabling the storage and analysis of huge amounts of customer data, such as that generated by social networks and mobile devices. Much of the commercial promise of big data is in the ability to generate valuable insights from collecting new types and volumes of data in ways that were not previously economically viable. At the same time a number of questions have been raised about the implications for individual privacy. This paper explores key perspectives underlying the emergence of big data and considers both the opportunities and ethical challenges raised for market research
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