799 research outputs found

    C-terminally mutated tubby protein accumulates in aggresomes

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    The tubby protein (Tub), a putative transcription factor, plays important roles in the maintenance and function of neuronal cells. A splicing defect-causing mutation in the 3'-end of the tubby gene, which is predicted to disrupt the carboxy-terminal region of the Tub protein, causes maturity-onset obesity, blindness, and deafness in mice. Although this pathological Tub mutation leads to a loss of function, the precise mechanism has not yet been investigated. Here, we found that the mutant Tub proteins were mostly localized to puncta found in the perinuclear region and that the C-terminus was important for its solubility. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that puncta of mutant Tub co-localized with the aggresome. Moreover, whereas wild-type Tub was translocated to the nucleus by extracellular signaling, the mutant forms failed to undergo such translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that the malfunctions of the Tub mutant are caused by its misfolding and subsequent localization to aggresomes.ope

    Ubiquitous Diabetes Management System via Interactive Communication Based on Information Technologies: Clinical Effects and Perspectives

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    New diabetes management systems based on interactive communication have been introduced recently, accompanying rapid advances in information technology; these systems are referred to as "ubiquitous diabetes management systems." In such ubiquitous systems, patients and medical teams can communicate via Internet or telecommunications, with patients uploading their glucose data and personal information, and medical teams sending optimal feedback. Clinical evidence from both long-term and short-term trials has been reported by some researchers. Such systems appear to be effective not only in reducing the levels of HbA1c but also in stabilizing glucose control. However, most notably, evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such a system should be demonstrated before it can be propagated out to the general population in actual clinical practice. To establish a cost-effective model, various types of clinical decision supporting software designed to reduce the labor time of physicians must first be developed. A number of sensors and devices for monitoring patients' data are expected to be available in the near future; thus, methods for automatic interconnections between devices and web charts were also developed. Further investigations to demonstrate the clinical outcomes of such a system should be conducted, hopefully leading to a new paradigm of diabetes management

    Bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang in adult patients with tinnitus, a randomized, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled trial - study protocol

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Tinnitus is the perception of hearing a sound for which there is no external acoustic source. It is often associated with sudden, temporary hearing loss and has a clear impact on a patient's quality of life. Despite numerous trials, there are no treatments that can be considered well established in terms of providing replicable long-term tinnitus reduction. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms of tinnitus. Bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang are among the most strongly preferred and widely used herbal medicines for tinnitus in Korea, as they cause very few serious adverse effects.</p> <p>We aim to establish basic clinical efficacy and safety data for bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang, which are approved as herbal medications by the Korea Food and Drug Administration in adult patients with tinnitus.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>This study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with three parallel arms (bojungikgitang, banhabaekchulchonmatang, and a placebo). Participants included in the study met the following criteria: typical conditions of intermittent or continuous tinnitus, for more than three months, with involuntary perceptions of the concept of a sound in the absence of an external source. Participants received bojungikgitang, banhabaekchulchonmatang, or a placebo-drug for eight weeks. The total duration of each arm was eleven weeks. Each participant was examined for signs and symptoms of tinnitus before and after taking medication. Post-treatment follow-up was performed two weeks after the final administration of medication.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>This trial provided evidence for the efficacy and safety of bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang in adult patients with tinnitus. The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, an assessment used to identify difficulties that may be experienced due to tinnitus. The secondary measures were included an Acoustic Examination and the Visual Analogue Scale. We employed the Euro-Qol 5-Dimension and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety was assessed by complete blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood chemistry, urine analysis, PA chest film, brain computed tomography, otologic examination, and vital signs.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23691284</p

    Proliferation of Hepatic Oval Cells via Cyclooxygenase-2 and Extracellular Matrix Protein Signaling during Liver Regeneration Following 2-AAF/Partial Hepatectomy in Rats

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    Lapatinib, a Dual EGFR and HER2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Downregulates Thymidylate Synthase by Inhibiting the Nuclear Translocation of EGFR and HER2

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    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) has been shown to exert a synergistic antitumor effect when combined with fluoropyrimidine. This synergy may be attributable to the downregulation of thymidylate synthase (TS), which is frequently overexpressed in fluoropyrimidine-resistant cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the downregulation of TS has yet to be clearly elucidated.In this study, we demonstrate that lapatinib, a dual TKI of EGFR and HER2 downregulates TS via inhibition of the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2. From our cDNA microarray experiments, we determined that a variety of nucleotide synthesis-related genes, including TS, were downregulated with lapatinib, and this was apparent in HER2-amplified cells. Targeted and pharmacologic inhibition assays confirmed that the dual inhibition of EGFR and HER2 is required for the more effective reduction of TS as compared to what was observed with gefitinib or trasutuzumab alone. Additionally, we determined that co-transfected EGFR and HER2 activate the TS gene promoter more profoundly than do either EGFR or HER2 alone. The translocation of EGFR and HER2 into the nucleus and the subsequent activation of the TS promoter were inhibited by lapatinib.These results demonstrate that lapatinib inhibits the nuclear translocation of EGFR and HER2 and downregulates TS, thus sensitizing cancer cells to fluoropyrimidine

    Combined inhibition of Bcl-2 family members and YAP induces synthetic lethality in metastatic gastric cancer with RASA1 and NF2 deficiency

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    Background Targetable molecular drivers of gastric cancer (GC) metastasis remain largely unidentified, leading to limited targeted therapy options for advanced GC. We aimed to identify molecular drivers for metastasis and devise corresponding therapeutic strategies. Methods We performed an unbiased in vivo genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout (KO) screening in peritoneal dissemination using genetically engineered GC mouse models. Candidate genes were validated through in vivo transplantation assays using KO cells. We analyzed target expression patterns in GC clinical samples using immunohistochemistry. The functional contributions of target genes were studied through knockdown, KO, and overexpression approaches in tumorsphere and organoid assays. Small chemical inhibitors against Bcl-2 members and YAP were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results We identified Nf2 and Rasa1 as metastasis-suppressing genes through the screening. Clinically, RASA1 mutations along with low NF2 expression define a distinct molecular subtype of metastatic GC exhibiting aggressive traits. NF2 and RASA1 deficiency increased in vivo metastasis and in vitro tumorsphere formation by synergistically amplifying Wnt and YAP signaling in cancer stem cells (CSCs). NF2 deficiency enhanced Bcl-2-mediated Wnt signaling, conferring resistance to YAP inhibition in CSCs. This resistance was counteracted via synthetic lethality achieved by simultaneous inhibition of YAP and Bcl-2. RASA1 deficiency amplified the Wnt pathway via Bcl-xL, contributing to cancer stemness. RASA1 mutation created vulnerability to Bcl-xL inhibition, but the additional NF2 deletion conferred resistance to Bcl-xL inhibition due to YAP activation. The combined inhibition of Bcl-xL and YAP synergistically suppressed cancer stemness and in vivo metastasis in RASA1 and NF2 co-deficiency. Conclusion Our research unveils the intricate interplay between YAP and Bcl-2 family members, which can lead to synthetic lethality, offering a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance. Importantly, our findings support a personalized medicine approach where combined therapy targeting YAP and Bcl-2, tailored to NF2 and RASA1 status, could effectively manage metastatic GC.This research was supported by grants of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean government (NRF-RS-2023–00208984, NRF-2021M3H9A1030260, NRF-2021R1F1A1051220, NRF-2016M3A9D5A01952416)

    Weekly Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab as a First-Line Therapy in Patients with HER2-Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancer: Magnitude of HER2/neu Amplification as a Predictive Factor for Efficacy

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    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab as firs-tline chemotherapy in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC), and we investigated the prognostic factors including magnitude of HER2/neu amplification in this population. We analyzed 54 patients with HER2-overexpressing MBC that were treated with weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy from February 2004 to December 2006. At a median follow-up of 28 months, median time to progression (TTP) was 16.6 months (95% CI, 9.4 to 23.7 months) and median overall survival was 25.6 months (95% CI, 21.8 to 27.3 months). Therapy was generally well tolerated, although three patients (5.5%) experienced reversible, symptomatic heart failure. Of the 27 patients evaluable for the HER2 FISH, patients with a HER2/CEP17 ratio of ≤4.0 had significantly shorter TTP than those with a HER2/CEP17 ratio of >4.0 (10.8 vs. 23.2 months, P=0.034). A HER2/CEP17 ratio of >4.0 was identified as significant predictive factor of TTP by multivariate analysis (P=0.032). The combination of weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy is an effective regimen in patients with HER2-FISH-positive MBC. Furthermore, the magnitude of HER2 amplification is an independent predictive factor of TTP
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