29,572 research outputs found

    Influence of external disturbances and compressibility on free turbulent mixing

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    It is shown that disturbances in external flow can significantly affect, by as much as an order of magnitude, the turbulent mixing rate in free shear layers and that the length scale of the external flow disturbances is as important as the amplitude. The difference between the effect of wide-band and narrow-band disturbances is stressed. The model for pressure fluctuation term in the kinetic energy equation is included in a two-equation model. The reduced spreading rate in high Mach number, high Reynolds number, adiabatic, free turbulent shear layers is predicted

    Synchronization transition of heterogeneously coupled oscillators on scale-free networks

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    We investigate the synchronization transition of the modified Kuramoto model where the oscillators form a scale-free network with degree exponent λ\lambda. An oscillator of degree kik_i is coupled to its neighboring oscillators with asymmetric and degree-dependent coupling in the form of \couplingcoeff k_i^{\eta-1}. By invoking the mean-field approach, we determine the synchronization transition point JcJ_c, which is zero (finite) when η>λ2\eta > \lambda-2 (η<λ2\eta < \lambda-2). We find eight different synchronization transition behaviors depending on the values of η\eta and λ\lambda, and derive the critical exponents associated with the order parameter and the finite-size scaling in each case. The synchronization transition is also studied from the perspective of cluster formation of synchronized vertices. The cluster-size distribution and the largest cluster size as a function of the system size are derived for each case using the generating function technique. Our analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures and two table

    Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation through Noisy Channels

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    We investigate quantum teleportation through noisy quantum channels by solving analytically and numerically a master equation in the Lindblad form. We calculate the fidelity as a function of decoherence rates and angles of a state to be teleported. It is found that the average fidelity and the range of states to be accurately teleported depend on types of noise acting on quantum channels. If the quantum channels is subject to isotropic noise, the average fidelity decays to 1/2, which is smaller than the best possible value 2/3 obtained only by the classical communication. On the other hand, if the noisy quantum channel is modeled by a single Lindblad operator, the average fidelity is always greater than 2/3.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Ultrafast spectroscopy of propagating coherent acoustic phonons in GaN/InGaN heterostructures

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    We show that large amplitude, coherent acoustic phonon wavepackets can be generated and detected in Inx_xGa1x_{1-x}N/GaN epilayers and heterostructures in femtosecond pump-probe differential reflectivity experiments. The amplitude of the coherent phonon increases with increasing Indium fraction xx and unlike other coherent phonon oscillations, both \textit{amplitude} and \textit{period} are strong functions of the laser probe energy. The amplitude of the oscillation is substantially and almost instantaneously reduced when the wavepacket reaches a GaN-sapphire interface below the surface indicating that the phonon wavepackets are useful for imaging below the surface. A theoretical model is proposed which fits the experiments well and helps to deduce the strength of the phonon wavepackets. Our model shows that localized coherent phonon wavepackets are generated by the femtosecond pump laser in the epilayer near the surface. The wavepackets then propagate through a GaN layer changing the local index of refraction, primarily through the Franz-Keldysh effect, and as a result, modulate the reflectivity of the probe beam. Our model correctly predicts the experimental dependence on probe-wavelength as well as epilayer thickness.Comment: 11 pages, 14 figure

    Performance of a prototype active veto system using liquid scintillator for a dark matter search experiment

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    We report the performance of an active veto system using a liquid scintillator with NaI(Tl) crystals for use in a dark matter search experiment. When a NaI(Tl) crystal is immersed in the prototype detector, the detector tags 48% of the internal K-40 background in the 0-10 keV energy region. We also determined the tagging efficiency for events at 6-20 keV as 26.5 +/- 1.7% of the total events, which corresponds to 0.76 +/- 0.04 events/keV/kg/day. According to a simulation, approximately 60% of the background events from U, Th, and K radioisotopes in photomultiplier tubes are tagged at energies of 0-10 keV. Full shielding with a 40-cm-thick liquid scintillator can increase the tagging efficiency for both the internal K-40 and external background to approximately 80%.Comment: Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section